Past Pub.

2009

Harvilchuck JA, Pu X, Klaunig JE, Carlson GP. Indicators of oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse whole lung and Clara cells following exposure to styrene and its metabolites. Toxicology. 2009 Oct 29;264(3):171-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2009.08.001. Epub 2009 Aug 8. PMID: 19666080.

Abstract. In mice, styrene is hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, and causes lung tumors. One explanation for the mechanism of toxicity is oxidative stress/damage. Previous studies have shown decreased glutathione levels, linked to increased apoptosis, in lung homogenates and isolated Clara cells 3 h following styrene or styrene oxide (SO) administration or in vitro exposure. The objective of the current studies was to determine what effects styrene and its active metabolites, primarily styrene oxide, had on indicators of oxidative stress and attendant apoptosis in order to understand better the mechanism of styrene-induced toxicity. Three hours following in vitro exposure of Clara cells to styrene or SO there were increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following administration of styrene or styrene oxide ip, increases in ROS, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation were observed. Since increases in ROS have been linked to increases in apoptosis ratios of bax/bcl-2, mRNA and protein expression were determined 3-240 h following the administration of styrene and R-styrene oxide (RSO). The bax/bcl-2 mRNA ratio increased 12 and 24 h following R-SO and 120 h following styrene administration. However, the bax/bcl-2 protein ratio was not increased until 240 h following R-SO, and 24 and 240 h following styrene administration. However, only a slight increase in caspase 3 was observed. These results indicated that oxidative stress occurred 3h following styrene or styrene oxide as evidenced by increased ROS and SOD. This increased ROS may be responsible for the increased 8-OHdG formation. Our findings of limited apoptosis in Clara cells following acute exposure to styrene or SO are in agreement with others and may reflect the minimal extent to which apoptosis plays a role in acute styrene toxicity. It is clear, however, that oxidative stress and oxidative effects on DNA are increased following exposure to styrene or styrene oxide, and these may play a role in the lung tumorigenesis in mice

Pu X, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Sep;111(1):64-71. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfp133. Epub 2009 Jun 22. PMID: 19546159.

Abstract. Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether blood can serve as a valid surrogate for the biomonitoring of oxidative stress induced by acrylonitrile in the exposed population. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 3, 30, 100, and 200 ppm acrylonitrile in drinking water for 28 days. One group of rats were also coadministered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.3% in diet) with acrylonitrile (200 ppm in drinking water) to examine whether antioxidant supplementation was protective against acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress. Direct DNA strand breakage in white blood cells (WBC) and brain was measured using the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay and with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. No significant increase in direct DNA strand breaks was observed in brain and WBC from acrylonitrile-treated rats. However, oxidative DNA damage (fpg comet and 8’hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) in brain and WBC was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in rats administered acrylonitrile. Dietary supplementation with NAC prevented acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in brain and WBC. A slight, but significant, decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio was seen in brain at acrylonitrile doses > 30 ppm. These results provide additional support that the mode of action for acrylonitrile-induced astrocytomas involves the induction of oxidative stress and damage. Significant associations were seen between oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain, ROS formation in plasma, and the reported tumor incidences. Since oxidative DNA damage in brain correlated with oxidative damage in WBC, these results suggest that monitoring WBC DNA damage maybe a useful tool to assess acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in humans

Cohen SM, Storer RD, Criswell KA, Doerrer NG, Dellarco VL, Pegg DG, Wojcinski ZW, Malarkey DE, Jacobs AC, Klaunig JE, Swenberg JA, Cook JC. Hemangiosarcoma in rodents: mode-of-action evaluation and human relevance. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Sep;111(1):4-18. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfp131. Epub 2009 Jun 12. PMID: 19525443.

Abstract. Although rarely occurring in humans, hemangiosarcomas (HS) have become important in evaluating the potential human risk of several chemicals, including industrial, agricultural, and pharmaceutical agents. Spontaneous HS arise frequently in mice, less commonly in rats, and frequently in numerous breeds of dogs. This review explores knowledge gaps and uncertainties related to the mode of action (MOA) for the induction of HS in rodents, and evaluates the potential relevance for human risk. For genotoxic chemicals (vinyl chloride and thorotrast), significant information is available concerning the MOA. In contrast, numerous chemicals produce HS in rodents by nongenotoxic, proliferative mechanisms. An overall framework is presented, including direct and indirect actions on endothelial cells, paracrine effects in local tissues, activation of bone marrow endothelial precursor cells, and tissue hypoxia. Numerous obstacles are identified in investigations into the MOA for mouse HS and the relevance of the mouse tumors to humans, including lack of identifiable precursor lesions, usually late occurrence of the tumors, and complexities of endothelial biology. This review proposes a working MOA for HS induced by nongenotoxic compounds that can guide future research in this area. Importantly, a common MOA appears to exist for the nongenotoxic induction of HS, where there appears to be a convergence of multiple initiating events (e.g., hemolysis, decreased respiration, adipocyte growth) leading to either dysregulated angiogenesis and/or erythropoiesis that results from hypoxia and macrophage activation. These later events lead to the release of angiogenic growth factors and cytokines that stimulate endothelial cell proliferation, which, if sustained, provide the milieu that can lead to HS formation

Klaunig JE, Shi Y. Assessment of gap junctional intercellular communication.  Curr Protoc Toxicol. 2009 Aug;Chapter 2:Unit2.17. doi: 10.1002/0471140856.tx0217s41. PMID: 20941698.

Abstract. Gap junctions are important plasma membrane organelles through which most cells in normal tissues communicate with each other. They exist in two neighboring cells and each cell contributes half of the structure. One gap junction consists of two hexameric connexons that dock with each other to create a channel. Six of the basic subunits referred to as connexins form a connexon. Less than one hundred to several thousand gap junction channels cluster together in the plane of the membrane. The gap junction channels serve as a regulated conduit for the intercellular exchange of small molecules. Maintenance of the integrity of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is important and required for normal electrical coupling, homeostasis, and embryogenesis. Aberrations of gap junctions have been related to human diseases such as cancer, cardiac arrhythmia, Charcot-Marie-tooth disease, and visceroatrial heterotaxia syndrome. This unit describes methods for measuring gap junctional intercellular communication using primary mouse hepatocytes as a model. Focus is only on functional evaluation based on dye coupling. Other methods, such as intracellular calcium waves and dual patch clamp, have been used to measure gap junctional communication, but these are not described in this unit

Lee L, Alloosh M, Saxena R, Van Alstine W, Watkins BA, Klaunig JE, Sturek M, Chalasani N. Nutritional model of steatohepatitis and metabolic syndrome in the Ossabaw miniature swine. Hepatology. 2009 Jul;50(1):56-67. doi: 10.1002/hep.22904. PMID: 19434740.

Abstract. Miniature pigs residing in the Ossabaw Island (Ossabaw pigs) exhibit a thrifty genotype, and when fed a high-calorie diet they consistently develop metabolic syndrome defined by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We conducted a study to induce steatohepatitis in Ossabaw pigs by dietary manipulation. Pigs were fed standard chow (controls, n = 15), high-fructose diet (20% kcal from fructose and 10.5% kcal from fat) (fructose group, n = 9), atherogenic diet (20% kcal from fructose and 46% kcal from fat and 2% cholesterol and 0.7% cholate by weight) (atherogenic diet group, n = 13), and modified atherogenic diet (different source of fat and higher protein but lower choline content) (M-Ath diet group, n = 7). All animals were sacrificed at 24 weeks after dietary intervention. The high-fructose group had significant weight gain, hypertension, and insulin resistance but showed normal liver histology. The atherogenic diet group had metabolic syndrome and abnormal liver histology consisting of significant microvesicular steatosis and fatty Kupffer cells but no ballooning or fibrosis. The M-Ath diet group developed severe metabolic syndrome and markedly abnormal liver histology with macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis, fatty Kupffer cells, extensive hepatocyte ballooning, and pericellular/perisinusoidal fibrosis. Compared with controls, the M-Ath diet group had significantly lower serum adiponectin but higher serum leptin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels and higher hepatic triglyceride and malondialdehyde levels. Conclusion: Ossabaw pigs fed a modified atherogenic diet develop severe metabolic syndrome and abnormal liver histology with close resemblance to human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

Klaunig, J.E., Shi, Y. (2009). Gap-Junctional Intercellular Communication. In Current Protocols in Toxicology. Chapter 2: Unit 2.17. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University School of Medicine. PMID: 20941698 [PubMed – in process].

2008

de Peyster A, Rodriguez Y, Shuto R, Goldberg B, Gonzales F, Pu X, Klaunig JE. Effect of oral methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) on the male mouse reproductive tract and oxidative stress in liver. Reprod Toxicol. 2008 Nov-Dec;26(3-4):246-53. doi:  10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.08.009. Epub 2008 Sep 9. PMID: 18824092.  

Abstract. MTBE is found in water supplies used for drinking and other purposes. These experiments follow up on earlier reports of reproductive tract alterations in male mice exposed orally to MTBE and explored oxidative stress as a mode of action. CD-1 mice were gavaged with 400-2000 mg/kg MTBE on days 1, 3, and 5, injected i.p. with hCG (2.5 IU/g) on day 6, and necropsied on day 7. No effect was seen in testis histology or testosterone levels. Using a similar dosing protocol, others had initially reported disruption of seminiferous tubules in MTBE-gavaged mice, although later conclusions published were consistent with our findings. Another group had also reported testicular and other reproductive system abnormalities in male BALB/c mice exposed for 28 days to 80-8000 microg/ml MTBE in drinking water. We gave these MTBE concentrations to adult mice for 28 days and juvenile mice for 51 days through PND 77. Evidence of oxidative stress was examined in liver homogenates from the juvenile study using MDA, TEAC and 8OH2hG as endpoints. MTBE exposures at the levels examined indicated no significant changes in the male mouse reproductive tract and no signs of hepatic oxidative stress. This appears to be the first oral MTBE exposure of juvenile animals, and also the first to examine potential for MTBE to cause oxidative stress in vivo using a typical route of human exposure…

Klaunig JE. Acrylamide carcinogenicity. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13;56(15):5984-8. doi: 10.1021/jf8004492. Epub 2008 Jul 15. PMID: 18624430.

Abstract. The induction of cancer by chemicals is a multiple-stage process. Acrylamide is carcinogenic to experimental mice and rats, causing tumors at multiple organ sites in both species when given in drinking water or by other means. In mice, acrylamide increased the incidence and multiplicity of lung tumors and skin tumors. In two bioassays in rats, acrylamide administered in drinking water consistently induced mesotheliomas of the testes, thyroid tumors, and mammary gland tumors. In addition, brain tumors appeared to be increased. In one of the rat bioassays, pituitary tumors, pheochromocytomas, uterine tumors, and pituitary tumors were noted. The conversion of acrylamide metabolically to the reactive, mutagenic, and genotoxic product, glycidamide, can occur in both rodent and humans. Glycidamide and frequently acrylamide have been positive for mutagenicity and DNA reactivity in a number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The effects of chronic exposure of glycidamide to rodents have not been reported. Epidemiologic studies of workers for possible health effects from exposures to acrylamide have not shown a consistent increase in cancer risk. Although an increase in the risk for pancreatic cancer (almost double) was seen in highly exposed workers, no exposure response relationship could be determined. The mode of action remains unclear for acrylamide-induced rodent carcinogenicity, but support for a genotoxic mechanism based on in vitro and in vivo DNA reactivity assays cannot be ruled out. In addition, the pattern of tumor formation in the rat following chronic exposure supports a genotoxic mode of action but also suggests a potential role of endocrine modification…

Novotny NM, Grosfeld JL, Turner KE, Rescorla FJ, Pu X, Klaunig JE, Hickey RJ, Malkas LH, Sandoval JA. Oxidative status in neuroblastoma: a source of stress? J  Pediatr Surg. 2008 Feb;43(2):330-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.10.040. PMID: 18280284.

Abstract. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be initiators/promotors of tumorigenesis. Because evidence supports the role of increased oxidative stress in solid tumors, we sought to establish this relationship in neuroblastoma (NB). The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of oxidative DNA damage and antioxidative status in a progressive animal model of human NB. Tumors were induced in the left kidneys of nude mice by the injection of cultured human NB cells (10(6)). Blood was collected from tumor-bearing mice and controls at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Peripheral blood leukocyte oxidative DNA damage was determined using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), and plasma antioxidant capacity was assessed by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity method. Levels of oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of NB-bearing mice were increased by 166%, 110%, and 87% as compared with healthy controls at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. Plasma total antioxidant values for tumor-bearing mice were not significantly different from control mice. Our results indicate an increase of oxidative stress in an animal model of human NB, especially in the early stages of growth. Yet, we did not observe an appreciable response in plasma antioxidant activity. Because an altered redox status has been implicated in tumor maintenance and progression, these findings support the notion of a complex oxidant-antioxidant imbalance contributing to NB growth

2007

Hahn NM, Kelley MR, Klaunig JE, Koch MO, Li L, Sweeney CJ. Constitutional polymorphisms of prostate cancer: prognostic and diagnostic implications. Future  Oncol. 2007 Dec;3(6):665-82. PMID: 18041919. 

Abstract. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men. While often perceived as a slow, indolent malignancy, prostate cancer trails only lung cancer among cancer-related mortality in men. Current diagnosis and treatment algorithms are plagued by overdiagnosis of non-lethal indolent prostate cancer with no proven means to predict, detect, and prevent aggressive lethal prostate cancer in men most at risk. These challenges are particularly concerning for African-American men who demonstrate increased rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality when compared to other ethnic groups. With the completion of the human genome project, technology and techniques now exist to differentiate cancer from normal tissues based on the expression patterns of thousands of genes assessed simultaneously on a single microarray gene ‘chip’. This platform has greatly improved our understanding of genes that regulate tumor behavior once cancer is established. Microarrays can also be utilized in patients without cancer to determine which patients are at high risk for tumor development and in need of rational prevention strategies. Constitutional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one source of genetic variation and may serve as a means to identify these high-risk individuals. SNPs are single nucleotide base pair changes within a gene which occur in one percent or more of the population. SNPs can contribute to a disease state by altering the function of a protein encoded by a gene without affecting gene expression. This review will examine the current understanding of constitutional SNPs associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis, highlight two current diagnostic array platforms and discuss implications for future prevention and screening programs

Calabrese EJ, Bachmann KA, Bailer AJ, Bolger PM, Borak J, Cai L, Cedergreen N, Cherian MG, Chiueh CC, Clarkson TW, Cook RR, Diamond DM, Doolittle DJ, Dorato  MA, Duke SO, Feinendegen L, Gardner DE, Hart RW, Hastings KL, Hayes AW, Hoffmann  GR, Ives JA, Jaworowski Z, Johnson TE, Jonas WB, Kaminski NE, Keller JG, Klaunig  JE, Knudsen TB, Kozumbo WJ, Lettieri T, Liu SZ, Maisseu A, Maynard KI, Masoro EJ, McClellan RO, Mehendale HM, Mothersill C, Newlin DB, Nigg HN, Oehme FW, Phalen RF, Philbert MA, Rattan SI, Riviere JE, Rodricks J, Sapolsky RM, Scott BR, Seymour C, Sinclair DA, Smith-Sonneborn J, Snow ET, Spear L, Stevenson DE, Thomas Y, Tubiana M, Williams GM, Mattson MP. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 1;222(1):122-8. Epub 2007 Mar 7. PMID: 17459441.

Abstract. Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

Roberts RA, Ganey PE, Ju C, Kamendulis LM, Rusyn I, Klaunig JE. Role of the Kupffer cell in mediating hepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis. Toxicol Sci. 2007  Mar;96(1):2-15. Epub 2006 Nov 22. Review. PMID: 17122412.

Abstract. Kupffer cells are resident macrophages of the liver and play an important role in its normal physiology and homeostasis as well as participating in the acute and chronic responses of the liver to toxic compounds. Activation of Kupffer cells directly or indirectly by toxic agents results in the release of an array of inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and reactive oxygen species. This activation appears to modulate acute hepatocyte injury as well as chronic liver responses including hepatic cancer. Understanding the role Kupffer cells play in these diverse responses is key to understanding mechanisms of liver injury. Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver disease results in morbidity and mortality, impacting severely on the development of new pharmacological agents. Modulation of the response of Kupffer cells by drugs has been suggested as a cause for the idiosyncratic response. Similarly, liver damage seen in chronic ethanol consumption appears to be modulated by Kupffer cell activation. More recent evidence has noted a contributory role of Kupffer cell activation in the process of hepatic carcinogenesis. Several nongenotoxic carcinogens, for example, activate Kupffer cells resulting in the release of cytokines and/or reactive oxygen species that induce hepatocyte cell proliferation and may enhance clonal expansion of preneoplastic cells leading to neoplasia. Kupffer cells therefore appear to play a central role in the hepatic response to toxic and carcinogenic agents. Taken together, the data presented in this symposium illustrate to the toxicologist the central role played by Kupffer cells in mediating hepatotoxicity

Klaunig JE, Babich MA, Cook JC, David RM, DeLuca JG, McKee RH, Peters JM, Roberts RA, Fenner-Crisp PA. PPARalpha and effects of TCE. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jan;115(1):A14-5; author reply A15-6. PMID: 17366801.

Abstract. Key issues in the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonism and cell signaling in trichloroethylene toxicity

Klaunig, J.E., Corthals, S. M., Kamendulis, L.M., Philip, B.K. (2007). Role of the Kupffer Cell in Hepatoxicity and Hepatocarcinogenesis. In Sahu (Ed.) Hepatotoxicity: From Genomics to in vitro and in vivo Models. (pp. 313-340). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Klaunig, J.E., Kamendulis, L.M. (2007). Chapter 8: Chemical Carcinogenesis. In Klaassen (Ed.), Casarett & Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons (7th Edition). (pp. 329-380). New York: McGraw-Hill.

2006

Pu X, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat astrocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2006 Oct;47(8):631-8. PMID: 16917936.

Abstract. Chronic administration of acrylonitrile results in a dose-related increase in astrocytomas in rat brain, but the mechanism of acrylonitrile carcinogenicity is not fully understood. The potential of acrylonitrile or its metabolites to induce direct DNA damage as a mechanism for acrylonitrile carcinogenicity has been questioned, and recent studies indicate that the mechanism involves the induction of oxidative stress in rat brain. The present study examined the ability of acrylonitrile to induce DNA damage in the DI TNC1 rat astrocyte cell line using the alkaline Comet assay. Oxidized DNA damage also was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase treatment in the modified Comet assay. No increase in direct DNA damage was seen in astrocytes exposed to sublethal concentrations of acrylonitrile (0-1.0 mM) for 24 hr. However, acrylonitrile treatment resulted in a concentration-related increase in oxidative DNA damage after 24 hr. Antioxidant supplementation in the culture media (alpha-tocopherol, (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate, or trolox) reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage. Depletion of glutathione using 0.1 mM DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine increased acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (22-46%), while cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 2.5 mM L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a precursor for glutathione biosynthesis, significantly reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (7-47%). Cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 0.5 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole, a suicidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450, prevented the oxidative DNA damage produced by acrylonitrile. Cyanide (0.1-0.5 mM) increased oxidative DNA damage (44-160%) in astrocytes. These studies demonstrate that while acrylonitrile does not directly damage astrocyte DNA, it does increase oxidative DNA damage. The oxidative DNA damage following acrylonitrile exposure appears to arise mainly through the P450 metabolic pathway; moreover, glutathione depletion may contribute to the induction of oxidative DNA damage by acrylonitrile

Corthals SM, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemangiosarcomas. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):378-86. Epub 2006 May 4. PMID: 16675516.

Abstract. Chronic exposure to 2-butoxyethanol increased liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice. The mechanism for the selective induction of hemangiosarcomas by 2-butoxyethanol is unknown but has been suggested to occur through non-DNA-reactive mechanisms. The occurrence of liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice has been linked to oxidative damage subsequent to RBC hemolysis and iron deposition and activation of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver, events that exhibit a threshold in both animals and humans. 2-Butoxyethanol is metabolized to 2-butoxyacetaldehyde and 2-butoxyacetic acid, and although the aldehyde metabolite is short lived, the potential exists for this metabolite to cause DNA damage. The present study examined whether 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolites, 2-butoxyacetaldehyde and 2-butoxyacetic acid, damaged mouse endothelial cell DNA using the comet assay. No increase in DNA damage was observed following 2-butoxyethanol (1-10mM), 2-butoxyacetaldehyde (0.1-1.0mM), or 2-butoxyacetic acid (1-10mM) in endothelial cells after 2, 4, or 24 h of exposure. Additional studies examined the involvement of hemolysis and macrophage activation in 2-butoxyethanol carcinogenesis. DNA damage was produced by hemolyzed RBCs (10 x 10(6), 4 h), ferrous sulfate (0.1-1.0 microM; 2-24 h), and hydrogen peroxide (50-100 microM; 1-4 h) in endothelial cells. Hemolyzed RBCs also activated macrophages, as evidenced by increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, while neither 2-butoxyethanol nor butoxyacetic acid increased TNF-alpha from macrophages. The effect of activated macrophages on endothelial cell DNA damage and DNA synthesis was also studied. Coculture of endothelial cells with activated macrophages increased endothelial cell DNA damage after 4 or 24 h and increased endothelial cell DNA synthesis after 24 h. These data demonstrate that 2-butoxyethanol and related metabolites do not directly cause DNA damage. Supportive evidence also demonstrated that damaged RBCs, iron, and/or products from macrophage activation (possibly reactive oxygen species) produce DNA damage in endothelial cells and that activated macrophages stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. These events coupled together provide the events necessary for the induction of hemangiosarcomas by 2-butoxyethanol

Holsapple MP, Pitot HC, Cohen SM, Boobis AR, Klaunig JE, Pastoor T, Dellarco  VL, Dragan YP. Mode of action in relevance of rodent liver tumors to human cancer risk. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Jan;89(1):51-6. Epub 2005 Oct 12. Erratum in: Toxicol Sci. 2006 Apr;90(2):596. Cohen, Samuel H [corrected to Cohen, Samuel M]. PMID: 16221960.

Abstract. Hazard identification and risk assessment paradigms depend on the presumption of the similarity of rodents to humans, yet species specific responses, and the extrapolation of high-dose effects to low-dose exposures can affect the estimation of human risk from rodent data. As a consequence, a human relevance framework concept was developed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Risk Science Institute (RSI) with the central tenet being the identification of a mode of action (MOA). To perform a MOA analysis, the key biochemical, cellular, and molecular events need to first be established, and the temporal and dose-dependent concordance of each of the key events in the MOA can then be determined. The key events can be used to bridge species and dose for a given MOA. The next step in the MOA analysis is the assessment of biological plausibility for determining the relevance of the specified MOA in an animal model for human cancer risk based on kinetic and dynamic parameters. Using the framework approach, a MOA in animals could not be defined for metal overload. The MOA for phenobarbital (PB)-like P450 inducers was determined to be unlikely in humans after kinetic and dynamic factors were considered. In contrast, after these factors were considered with reference to estrogen, the conclusion was drawn that estrogen-induced tumors were plausible in humans. Finally, it was concluded that the induction of rodent liver tumors by porphyrogenic compounds followed a cytotoxic MOA, and that liver tumors formed as a result of sustained cytotoxicity and regenerative proliferation are considered relevant for evaluating human cancer risk if appropriate metabolism occurs in the animal models and in humans

2005

Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM. Mechanisms of acrylamide induced rodent carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2005;561:49-62. PMID: 16438288.

Abstract. Acrylamide is a monomer of polyacrylamide, used in biochemistry, in paper manufacture, in water treatment, and as a soil stabilizer. The monomer can cause several toxic effects and has the potential for human exposure either through the environment or from occupational exposure. Recently, additional concern for the potential toxicity of acrylamide in humans has arisen with the finding of acrylamide formation in some processed foods. It has been established that following chronic exposure, rats exhibited an increase in the incidence of adrenal pheochromocytomas, testicular mesotheliomas, thyroid adenomas and mammary neoplasms in F344 rats. This has raised increased concerns regarding the carcinogenic risk to humans from acrylamide exposure. Studies examining the DNA reactivity of acrylamide have been performed and have had differing results. The tissue and organ pattern of neoplastic development seen in the rat following acrylamide exposure is not consistent with that seen with other strictly DNA reactive carcinogens. Based on the pattern of neoplastic development, it appears that acrylamide is targeting endocrine sensitive tissues. In the current monograph, studies on the effect of acrylamide on DNA reactivity and on altered cell growth in the target tissues in the rat are reported. DNA synthesis was examined in F344 rats treated with acrylamide (0, 2, or 15 mg/kg/day) for 7, 14, or 28 days. Acrylamide increased DNA synthesis in the target tissues (thyroid, testicular mesothelium, adrenal medulla) at all doses and time points examined. In contrast, in a non-target tissue (liver), no increase in DNA synthesis was seen. Examination of DNA damage using single cell gel electrophoresis (the Comet assay) showed an increase in DNA damage in the target tissues, but not in non-target tissue (liver). In addition, a cellular transformation model, (the Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell morphological transformation model), was used to examine potential mechanisms for the observed carcinogenicity of acrylamide. SHE cell studies showed that glutathione (GSH) modulation by acrylamide was important in the cell transformation process. Treatment with a sulfhydryl donor compound (NAC) reduced acrylamide transformation while depletion of GSH (BSO) resulted in an enhancement of transformation. In summary, acrylamide caused both an increase in DNA synthesis and DNA damage in mammalian tissues and cells suggesting that DNA reactivity and cell proliferation, in concert, may contribute to the observed acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in the rat and has implication on the possible risk for human neoplasm development.

Shankar SS, Dubé MP, Gorski JC, Klaunig JE, Steinberg HO. Indinavir impairs endothelial function in healthy HIV-negative men. Am Heart J. 2005 Nov;150(5):933. PMID: 16290967.

Abstract. Potent antiretroviral treatment has drastically reduced mortality in HIV-infected patients but may accelerate atherosclerotic disease, which could be partially mediated via endothelial dysfunction. In 8 HIV-negative healthy males, leg blood flow responses to intraartery infusions of methacholine chloride (Mch), sodium nitroprusside, and NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) were measured before and after 4 weeks of daily oral indinavir. In the same subjects, we also assessed the effect of indinavir on lipids, insulin sensitivity, markers of inflammation, as well as oxidative stress. After 4 weeks of indinavir, the endothelium-dependent response to methacholine chloride was impaired (195% +/- 38% vs 83% +/- 13%, P < .05), the response to NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine (nitric oxide-dependent tone) was nearly abrogated (-30% +/- 4% vs -1% +/- 11%, P < .05), whereas the endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside remained unchanged. Fasting insulin levels increased from 5.8 +/- 1.2 to 7.0 +/- 1.4 microU/mL (P < .05), and HOMA-IR scores increased from 1.3 +/- 0.3 to 1.6 +/- 0.3 U (P < .05). There were no changes in blood pressure, lipids, markers of inflammation, or oxidative stress. Four weeks of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir, in the absence of HIV-1 infection, causes vascular dysfunction most likely at the level of endothelial nitric oxide production. The vascular dysfunction may be mediated partially by the concomitant induction of insulin resistance but other mechanisms cannot be ruled out

Seed J, Carney EW, Corley RA, Crofton KM, DeSesso JM, Foster PM, Kavlock R, Kimmel G, Klaunig J, Meek ME, Preston RJ, Slikker W Jr, Tabacova S, Williams GM, Wiltse J, Zoeller RT, Fenner-Crisp P, Patton DE. Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 Oct-Nov;35(8-9):664-72.PMID: 16417033

Abstract. A complete mode of action human relevance analysis–as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone–depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute’s Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information to generate a four-part Human Relevance Framework (HRF) for systematic and transparent analysis of MOA data and information. Based mainly on non-DNA-reactive carcinogens, the HRF features a “concordance” analysis of MOA information from both animal and human sources, with a focus on determining the appropriate role for each MOA data set in human risk assessment. With MOA information increasingly available for risk assessment purposes, this article illustrates the further applicability of the HRF for reproductive, developmental, neurologic, and renal endpoints, as well as cancer. Based on qualitative and quantitative MOA considerations, the MOA/human relevance analysis also contributes to identifying data needs and issues essential for the dose-response and exposure assessment steps in the overall risk assessment.

Kirman CR, Gargas ML, Marsh GM, Strother DE, Klaunig JE, Collins JJ, Deskin R. Cancer dose–response assessment for acrylonitrile based upon rodent brain tumor incidence: use of epidemiologic, mechanistic, and pharmacokinetic support for nonlinearity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;43(1):85-103. PMID: 16099568.

Abstract. A cancer dose-response assessment was conducted for acrylonitrile (AN) using updated information on mechanism of action, epidemiology, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics. Although more than 10 chronic bioassays indicate that AN produces multiple tumors in rats and mice, a number of large, well-conducted epidemiology studies provide no evidence of a causal association between AN exposure and cancer mortality of any type. The epidemiological data include early industry exposures that are far higher than occur today and that approach or exceed levels found to be tumorigenic in animals. Despite the absence of positive findings in the epidemiology data, a dose-response assessment was conducted for AN based on brain tumors in rats. Mechanistic studies implicate the involvement of oxidative stress in rat brain due to a metabolite (2-cyanoethylene oxide or CEO, cyanide), but do not conclusively rule out a potential role for the direct genotoxicity of CEO. A PBPK model was used to predict internal doses (peak CEO in brain) for 12 data sets, which were pooled together to provide a consistent characterization of the dose-response relationship for brain tumor incidence in the rat. The internal dose corresponding to a 5% increase in extra risk (ED 05=0.017 mg/L brain) and its lower confidence limit (LED 05=0.014 mg/L brain) was used as the point of departure. The weight-of-evidence supports the use of a nonlinear extrapolation for the cancer dose-response assessment. A quantitative comparison of the epidemiology exposure-response data (lung and brain cancer mortality) to the rat brain tumor data in terms of internal dose adds to the confidence in the nonlinear extrapolation. Uncertainty factors of 200 and 220 (for the oral and inhalation routes, respectively) were applied to the LED 05 to account for interspecies variation, intraspecies variation, and the severity of the response measure. Accordingly, oral doses below 0.009 mg/kg-day and air concentrations below 0.1mg/m(3) are not expected to pose an appreciable risk to human populations exposed to AN

Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Species differences in the induction of hepatocellular DNA synthesis by diethanolamine. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Oct;87(2):328-36. Epub 2005 Jul 13. PMID: 16014740.

Abstract. Diethanolamine increased the incidence and multiplicity of liver tumors in the mouse following chronic exposure. Diethanolamine is known to inhibit cellular choline uptake. Since choline deficiency produces tumors in rodents, diethanolamine, through choline depletion, may result in tumor development in rodents. The potential for diethanolamine to function through this mode of action in humans is not known. The present studies examined the effect of diethanolamine (0-500 mug/ml) and choline depletion on DNA synthesis and changes in expression of genes involved in cell growth pathways in primary cultures of mouse, rat, and human hepatocytes. In mouse and rat hepatocytes DNA synthesis was increased following treatment with 10 mug/ml diethanolamine and higher (3- to 4-fold over control). In contrast, diethanolamine failed to increase DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes. Incubation of hepatocytes in medium containing reduced choline (1/10 to 1/100 of normal medium; 0.898 to 0.0898 mg/l vs. 8.98 mg/l) increased DNA synthesis (1.6- and 1.8-fold of control in mouse and rat hepatocytes, respectively); however, choline depletion did not induce DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes. Mouse and rat hepatocytes incubated in medium supplemented with 2- to 50-fold excess choline reduced diethanolamine-induced DNA synthesis to control levels or below. Gene expression analysis of mouse and rat hepatocytes following diethanolamine treatment showed increases in genes associated with cell growth and decreases in expression of genes involved in apoptotic pathways. These results support the hypothesis that choline depletion is central to the mode of action for the induction of rodent hepatic neoplasia by diethanolamine. Furthermore, since diethanolamine treatment or choline depletion failed to induce DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes, these results suggest that humans may not be at risk from the carcinogenic effects of diethanolamine

Nie Y, Schoepp DD, Klaunig JE, Yard M, Lahiri DK, Kubek MJ. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (protirelin) inhibits potassium-stimulated glutamate and aspartate release from hippocampal slices in vitro. Brain Res. 2005 Aug 23;1054(1):45-54. PMID: 16055093.

Abstract. Excess excitatory amino acid release is involved in pathways associated with seizures and neurodegeneration. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH; protirelin), a brain-derived tripeptide, has shown efficacy in the treatment of such disorders, yet its mechanism of neuroprotection is poorly understood. Using superfused hippocampal slices, we tested the hypothesis that TRH could inhibit evoked glutamate/aspartate release in vitro. Rat hippocampal slices were first equilibrated in oxygenated Krebs buffer (KRB) (120 min) then superfused for 10 min with KRB (control), or KRB containing 0.1, 1, or 10 microM TRH respectively, prior to and during 5 min depolarization with high potassium KRB (50 mM [K(+)] +/- TRH). Fractions (1 min) were collected during the 5 min stimulation and for an additional 10 min thereafter and analyzed for glutamate and aspartate by HPLC. TRH had no effect on baseline glutamate/aspartate release, while all three TRH doses significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited peak 50 mM [K(+)]-stimulated glutamate/aspartate release, and glutamate remained below control (P < 0.05) at 15 min post stimulation. A 5 min pulse of TRH (10 microM) had no affect on basal glutamate/aspartate release, whereas the TRH pre-pulsed slices failed to release glutamate/aspartate by [K(+)]-stimulation given 15 min later. These results are the first to show a potent and prolonged inhibitory effect of TRH on evoked glutamate/aspartate release in vitro. These initial studies suggest that exogenous and/or endogenous TRH may function, in part, to modulate excess glutamate release in specific CNS loci. Additional studies are in progress to fully understand the mechanism of this potent effect of TRH and its implication in various CNS disorders

Klaunig JE. Cancer biology and hormesis: commentary. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 Jul;35(6):593-4. PMID: 16422395.

Abstract. The observation of biphasic dose-response relationships following exposure to pharmacological and toxicological agents has been well documented. In this review Dr. Calabrese, using published data on human tumor cell lines treated with a variety of agents has provided additional support for the demonstration of hormesis in the cancer process. While this review has restricted the examination to human tumor cell lines, this limitation dose not take away from the value of the treatise and helps to point out the need for further analysis of the biphasic does response in other cancer models including in vivo carcinogenesis studies and human cancer epidemiology. This issue is further enhanced when the potential mechanisms for hormetic responses in the cancer cells are discussed, since the same mechanisms participate in the carcinogenesis process. Overall, this review provides an excellent opening examination into the definition of biphasic dose-response effects of toxic and pharmacological agents in cancer cells

Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM. Mode of action of butoxyethanol-induced mouse liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Toxicol Lett. 2005 Mar 28;156(1):107-15. PMID: 15705491.

Abstract. Chronic exposure to 2-butoxyethanol resulted in an increase in liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatic carcinomas in male mouse liver. No increase in liver neoplasia was observed in similarly exposed male and female rats or female mice. We have proposed that the production of liver neoplasia in the male mouse is the result of oxidative damage secondary to the hemolytic deposition of iron in the liver. Our working hypothesis is that the mode of action of butoxyethanol-induced mouse liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatic neoplasia involves the metabolism of 2-butoxyethanol to butoxyacetic acid which results in the induction of RBC hemolysis. This hemolytic response is translated into the accumulation of iron in both liver hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. The Kupffer cell response to this insult is two-fold: (1) the production of oxidative species-through both Kupffer cell activation and through the Fenton reaction involving iron and (2) the production of cytokines (for example TNF alpha). The induction of reactive oxygen species can, if not scavenged, produce oxidative DNA damage (the formation of OH8dG), as well as increase cell growth through modulation of gene expression. While the reactive oxygen species generation would occur in the both rats and mice, the ability of the rat to detoxify the reactive oxygen species would preclude the remaining steps from occurring. In contrast, in the mouse, the reactive oxygen species would override antioxidant defense mechanisms and allow the proposed mode of action to move forward. Our results to date in male B6C3F1 mice and male F344 rats treated with 2-butoxyethanol (via daily gavage; five times per week) at doses of 0, 225, 450, and 900 mg/kg/day (mice) and 0, 225, 450 mg/kg/day (rats), respectively, showed: an increase in hemolysis in 2-butoxyethanol treated rats and mice in a dose-dependent manner, in addition, an increase in the percent of iron stained Kupffer cells in the liver was observed following treatment with 450 and 900 mg/kg of 2-butoxyethanol in mice and 225 and 450 mg/kg of 2-butoxyethanol in rat. With the iron deposition, a biphasic increase in oxidative damage (OH8dG and malondialdehyde) was seen in mouse liver after treatment with 2-butoxyethanol. In contrast, no increase in oxidative damage was observed in the rat liver at any of the doses examined. Concomitant with the increase in oxidative damage, Vitamin E levels were similarly reduced by 2-butoxyethanol in both mice and rat liver. However, the basal level of Vitamin E in rat liver was 2.5-fold greater than in mouse liver. A biphasic induction of DNA synthesis was seen following 2-butoxyethanol in the mouse. In mouse liver, increased DNA synthesis was observed in hepatocytes at 90 days and in endothelial cells at 7 and 14 days at all doses. No change in DNA synthesis was seen in 2-butoxyethanol treated rat liver. No apparent differences in apoptosis and mitosis in the liver were observed in mouse and rat liver between 2-butoxyethanol treatment groups and untreated controls. These results suggest that the induction of DNA synthesis, possibly from oxidative stress and/or Kupffer cell activation, occurs selectively in the mouse liver, in endothelial cells and in hepatocytes following exposure to 2-butoxyethanol, and support the hypothesis proposed above

Klaunig, J.E., Kamendulis, L.M. (2005). Mechanisms of Acrylamide Induced Rodent Carcinogenesis. In: Friedman and Mottram (Eds.), Chemistry and Safety of Acrylamide in Food (pp. 49 – 62). Springer, New York.

2004

Lafferty JS, Kamendulis LM, Kaster J, Jiang J, Klaunig JE. Subchronic acrylamide treatment induces a tissue-specific increase in DNA synthesis in the rat. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Dec 1;154(1-2):95-103. PMID: 15475183.

Abstract. Chronic treatment with acrylamide results in increased incidence of adrenal (pheochromocytoma), testicular (mesotheliomas) and thyroid (adenoma) neoplasia in male rats. While acrylamide has been demonstrated to be DNA reactive, the tissue pattern of neoplasm induction by acrylamide suggests other mechanisms in addition to DNA reactivity may be involved in the carcinogenesis of this compound. The present studies were performed to determine whether acrylamide or an acrylamide metabolite altered cell growth in the neoplastic target tissues in the rat. DNA synthesis, mitosis and apoptosis were examined in F344 and Sprague-Dawley male rats treated with acrylamide (0, 2, or 15 mg/kg/day) for 7, 14, or 28 days. Acrylamide increased DNA synthesis in the target tissues for tumor development (thyroid, testicular mesothelium, adrenal medulla) in both rat species. In contrast, cell growth was not altered in the liver and adrenal cortex (non-target tissues for acrylamide carcinogenesis). No changes in apoptosis or mitosis were observed in any of the tissues examined. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism of acrylamide using 1-aminobenzotriazole reduced acrylamide-induced DNA synthesis only in the adrenal medulla, having no apparent effect in the testicular mesolthelium or thyroid. In summary, acrylamide produced a selective increase in DNA synthesis that correlates with the previously reported tumor target tissues

Boatman R, Corley R, Green T, Klaunig J, Udden M. Review of studies concerning the tumorigenicity of 2-butoxyethanol in B6C3F1 mice and its relevance for human risk assessmentJ Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004 Sep-Oct;7(5):385-98. PMID: 15371241

Abstract. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has completed 2-yr inhalation exposures in rats and mice with 2-butoxyethanol (BE). This review concerns the most significant findings from those studies and describes recent research into the mechanistic aspects of BE-mediated tumorigenesis in the mouse and the relevance of such effects to humans. Two tumor types were increased in B6C3F1 mice leading to the classification of “some evidence” of carcinogenicity: liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice and forestomach tumors in female mice (primarily benign papillomas). The results of research collected to date indicate that the tumorigenesis noted for BE was produced by indirect mechanisms. In particular, the occurrence of liver hemangiosarcomas in male mice has been linked to oxidative damage subsequent to red blood cell hemolysis and iron deposition in this organ. Oral administration of BE in mice up to 600 mg/kg/d for up to 90 d produces a dose-related increase in iron (Perl’s staining) in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes, increased DNA synthesis in endothelial cells, and enhanced oxidative damage. Further, iron alone, and not BE or BAA, is responsible for producing oxidative damage in cultured hepatocytes from rats or mice. Forestomach neoplasms in female mice were most likely a result of prolonged exposure-induced irritation with compensatory hyperplasia and subsequent tumor promotion. This mechanism is supported by studies indicating elevated levels of BE and BAA in the mouse forestomach tissues and stomach contents following multiple routes of exposure, forestomach epithelial cell cytotoxicity and cell proliferation following administration of BE and BAA, and the increased capacity of forestomach tissues from female mice to metabolize BE to the more irritating metabolite, BAA. The current article summarizes the results of a number of in vivo and in vitro studies designed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of tumorigenesis by BE in the mouse and discusses the relevance of these for human risk.

Rusyniak DE, Tandy SL, Kamendulis LM, Sprague JE, Klaunig JE. The effects of ecstasy (MDMA) on rat liver bioenergetics. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Jul;11(7):723-9. PMID: 15231458.

Abstract. Use of the drug ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) can result in life-threatening hyperthermia. Agents that uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are known to cause severe hyperthermia. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that MDMA directly uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. Effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics were assessed both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies consisted of measuring the effects of MDMA (0.1-5.0 mmol/L) on states of respiration in isolated rat liver mitochondria and on mitochondrial membrane potential in a rat liver cell line. In ex vivo studies, mitochondrial rates of respiration were measured in the livers of rats one hour after treatment with MDMA (40 mg/kg subcutaneously). With the in vitro mitochondrial preparations, only concentrations of 5 mmol/L MDMA showed evidence of uncoupling with a slight increase in state 4 respiration and a corresponding decrease in the respiratory control index. MDMA (0.1-5.0 mmol/L) failed to decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential in 3,3-dihexyloxacarbocyanide iodide-stained WB-344 cells after either one or 24 hours of incubation. Ex vivo rates of respiration obtained from the livers of rats one hour after treatment with MDMA (40 mg/kg subcutaneously) showed no evidence of mitochondrial uncoupling. These data suggest that while high concentrations of MDMA have some mild uncoupling effects in isolated mitochondria, these effects do not translate to cell culture or ex vivo studies in treated animals. These data do not support the view that the hyperthermia induced by MDMA is from a direct effect on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

Chirase NK, Greene LW, Purdy CW, Loan RW, Auvermann BW, Parker DB, Walborg EF Jr, Stevenson DE, Xu Y, Klaunig JE. Effect of transport stress on respiratory disease, serum antioxidant status, and serum concentrations of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in beef cattle. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Jun;65(6):860-4. PMID: 15198229.

Abstract. To determine the effect of transportation stress on serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers of calves. 105 crossbred beef steer calves (mean [+/-SD] body weight, 207 +/- 21.2 kg). Calves were assembled at 1 location in Tennessee, and pretransit (day -3) blood samples were collected. Calves were allotted randomly by body weight into 2 groups. Calves were transported 1,930 miles to a feedlot in Texas, and 1 group received tilmicosin phosphate (33 microg/kg, s.c.) upon arrival. Calves were weighed and blood samples collected on the day of arrival (day 1) and on days 15, 22, and 28. Calves were scored daily for signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Serum total antioxidant capacity (TACA) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were determined. Transportation stress significantly decreased mean serum TACA concentrations (from 147 +/- 31.2 U/mL to 133 +/- 20.1 U/mL) and significantly increased serum MDA concentrations (from 10.9 +/- 18.3 microg/mL to 30.2 +/- 50.5 microg/mL). Calves that died had a 43% increase in serum MDA concentration on day 1, compared with calves that lived (42.2 +/- 67.0 microg/mL vs 29.4 +/- 49.4 microg/mL, respectively). Calves that had > or =3 episodes of BRD had 2-fold higher serum MDA concentrations on day 1 than healthy calves. Tilmicosin-treated calves had a 20.8% significantly greater average daily gain and significantly greater serum TACA concentration than nontreated calves on day 28. Transportation stress increases serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers that are related to episodes of BRD and mortality in calves

Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM. The role of oxidative stress in carcinogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;44:239-67. PMID: 14744246.

Abstract. Chemical carcinogenesis follows a multistep process involving both mutation and increased cell proliferation. Oxidative stress can occur through overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species through either endogenous or exogenous insults. Important to carcinogenesis, the unregulated or prolonged production of cellular oxidants has been linked to mutation (induced by oxidant-induced DNA damage), as well as modification of gene expression. In particular, signal transduction pathways, including AP-1 and NFkappaB, are known to be activated by reactive oxygen species, and they lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. This review examines the evidence of cellular oxidants’ involvement in the carcinogenesis process, and focuses on the mechanisms for production, cellular damage produced, and the role of signaling cascades by reactive oxygen species

Cohen SM, Klaunig J, Meek ME, Hill RN, Pastoor T, Lehman-McKeeman L, Bucher J, Longfellow DG, Seed J, Dellarco V, Fenner-Crisp P, Patton D. Evaluating the human relevance of chemically induced animal tumors. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Apr;78(2):181-6. Epub 2004 Jan 21. PMID: 14737005.

Abstract. Defining the mode(s) of action by which chemicals induce tumors in laboratory animals has become a key to judgments about the relevance of such tumor data for human risk assessment. Frameworks for analyzing mode of action information appear in recent U.S. EPA and IPCS publications relating to cancer risk assessment. This FORUM paper emphasizes that mode of action analytical frameworks depend on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of relevant data and information: (1) presenting key events in the animal mode of action, (2) developing a “concordance” table for side-by-side comparison of key events as defined in animal studies with comparable information from human systems, and (3) using data and information from mode of action analyses, as well as information on relative sensitivity and exposure, to make weight-of-evidence judgments about the relevance of animal tumors for human cancer assessments. The paper features a systematic analysis for using mode of action information from animal and human studies, based in part on case examples involving environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals

2003

Klaunig JE, Babich MA, Baetcke KP, Cook JC, Corton JC, David RM, DeLuca JG, Lai DY, McKee RH, Peters JM, Roberts RA, Fenner-Crisp PA. PPARalpha agonist-induced rodent tumors: modes of action and human relevance. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2003;33(6):655-780. PMID: 14727734.

Abstract. Widely varied chemicals–including certain herbicides, plasticizers, drugs, and natural products–induce peroxisome proliferation in rodent liver and other tissues. This phenomenon is characterized by increases in the volume density and fatty acid oxidation of these organelles, which contain hydrogen peroxide and fatty acid oxidation systems important in lipid metabolism. Research showing that some peroxisome proliferating chemicals are nongenotoxic animal carcinogens stimulated interest in developing mode of action (MOA) information to understand and explain the human relevance of animal tumors associated with these chemicals. Studies have demonstrated that a nuclear hormone receptor implicated in energy homeostasis, designated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), is an obligatory factor in peroxisome proliferation in rodent hepatocytes. This report provides an in-depth analysis of the state of the science on several topics critical to evaluating the relationship between the MOA for PPARalpha agonists and the human relevance of related animal tumors. Topics include a review of existing tumor bioassay data, data from animal and human sources relating to the MOA for PPARalpha agonists in several different tissues, and case studies on the potential human relevance of the animal MOA data. The summary of existing bioassay data discloses substantial species differences in response to peroxisome proliferators in vivo, with rodents more responsive than primates. Among the rat and mouse strains tested, both males and females develop tumors in response to exposure to a wide range of chemicals including DEHP and other phthalates, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and certain pesticides and hypolipidemic pharmaceuticals. MOA data from three different rodent tissues–rat and mouse liver, rat pancreas, and rat testis–lead to several different postulated MOAs, some beginning with PPARalpha activation as a causal first step. For example, studies in rodent liver identified seven “key events,” including three “causal events”–activation of PPARalpha, perturbation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, and selective clonal expansion–and a series of associative events involving peroxisome proliferation, hepatocyte oxidative stress, and Kupffer-cell-mediated events. Similar in-depth analysis for rat Leydig-cell tumors (LCTs) posits one MOA that begins with PPARalpha activation in the liver, but two possible pathways, one secondary to liver induction and the other direct inhibition of testicular testosterone biosynthesis. For this tumor, both proposed pathways involve changes in the metabolism and quantity of related hormones and hormone precursors. Key events in the postulated MOA for the third tumor type, pancreatic acinar-cell tumors (PACTs) in rats, also begin with PPARalpha activation in the liver, followed by changes in bile synthesis and composition. Using the new human relevance framework (HRF) (see companion article), case studies involving PPARalpha-related tumors in each of these three tissues produced a range of outcomes, depending partly on the quality and quantity of MOA data available from laboratory animals and related information from human data sources

Cohen SM, Meek ME, Klaunig JE, Patton DE, Fenner-Crisp PA. The human relevance of information on carcinogenic modes of action: overview. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2003;33(6):581-9. PMID: 14727732.

Abstract. Risk assessment policies and practice place increasing reliance on mode of action (MOA) data to inform conclusions about the human relevance of animal tumors. In June 2001, the Risk Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute formed a workgroup to study this issue. The workgroup divided into two subgroups, one developing and testing a “framework” for MOA relevance analysis and the other conducting an in-depth analysis of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activation as the MOA for some animal carcinogens. This special issue of Critical Reviews in Toxicology presents the scientific reports emerging from this activity. These reports serve several purposes. For risk assessors in and out of government, they offer a new human relevance framework (HRF) that complements and extends existing guidance from other organizations. Regarding the specific MOA for peroxisome proliferating chemicals, these reports offer a state-of-the-science review of this important MOA and its role in tumorigenesis in three different tissues (liver, testis, and pancreas). The case studies in these reports present models for using MOA information to evaluate the hazard potential for humans. The cases also illustrate the substantial impact of a complete human relevance analysis, as distinct from an animal MOA analysis alone, on the nature and scope of risk assessment

Lin S, Wei X, Xu Y, Yan C, Dodel R, Zhang Y, Liu J, Klaunig JE, Farlow M, Du  Y. Minocycline blocks 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity and free radical production in rat cerebellar granule neurons. Life Sci. 2003 Feb 21;72(14):1635-41. PMID: 12551752.

Abstract. Neurotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is believed to be due, in part, to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Anti-oxidants by inhibiting free radical generation, protect neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether or not minocycline, a neuroprotective compound, could directly protect neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and inhibit 6-OHDA-induced free radical production in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). We now report that exposure of CGN to 6-OHDA (100 microM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical production with death of 86% of CGN. Pretreatment with minocycline (10 microM) for 2 h prevented 6-OHDA-induced free radical generation and neurotoxicity. Furthermore, minocycline also attenuated H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that minocycline blocks 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death possibly by inhibiting 6-OHDA-induced free radical generation in CGN. Both the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of minocycline may be beneficial in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases

2002

Siesky AM, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Hepatic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in rodents. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Dec;70(2):252-60. PubMed PMID: 12441370.

Abstract. Chronic inhalation of 2-butoxyethanol resulted in an increase in liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatic carcinomas in male mouse liver. No increase in liver neoplasia was observed in similarly exposed male and female rats or female mice. We proposed that the production of liver neoplasia in the male mouse is the result of oxidative damage secondary to the hemolytic deposition of iron in the liver. This occurs selectively in the male mouse and leads either directly or indirectly to liver neoplasia. To address this proposal, male B6C3F1 mice and male F344 rats were treated with 2-butoxyethanol (via daily gavage; five times per week) at doses of 0, 225, 450, and 900 mg/kg/day (mice) and 0, 225, and 450 mg/kg/day (rats) respectively. Following treatment for 7, 14, 28, and 90 days, DNA synthesis, oxidative damage, hematocrit, and iron deposition were measured in the livers. An increase in hemolysis (measured by a decrease in hematocrit and increase in relative spleen weight) was observed in 2-butoxyethanol-treated rats and mice in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in the percentage of iron-stained Kupffer cells was observed following treatment with 450 and 900 mg/kg of 2-butoxyethanol in mice and 225 and 450 mg/kg of 2-butoxyethanol in rats. A biphasic increase in oxidative damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) was seen in mouse liver after 7 and 90 days of treatment with 2-butoxyethanol, whereas no increases were observed in treated rat liver. Vitamin E levels were reduced by 2-butoxyethanol treatment in both mice and rat liver; however, the basal level of vitamin E was approximately 2.5-fold higher in rat than in mouse liver. A similar biphasic induction of DNA synthesis was seen following 2-butoxyethanol treatment in the mouse. In the mouse liver, increased DNA synthesis was observed in hepatocytes at 90 days and in endothelial cells at 7 and 14 days at all doses. No change in DNA synthesis was seen in 2-butoxyethanol-treated rat liver. No apparent differences in apoptosis and mitosis in the liver were observed in mouse and rat liver between 2-butoxyethanol treatment groups and untreated controls. These results suggest that DNA synthesis, possibly from oxidative stress or Kupffer cell activation, occurs selectively in the mouse liver, primarily in endothelial cells (a target of 2-butoxyethanol neoplasia), following exposure to 2-butoxyethanol

Kamendulis LM, Zhang H, Wang Y, Klaunig JE. Morphological transformation and oxidative stress induced by cyanide in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Aug;68(2):437-43. PMID: 12151639.

Abstract. Cyanide is a well-established poison known for its rapid lethal action and toxicity. Although long-term mammalian studies examining the carcinogenic potential of cyanide have not been previously reported, cyanide was reported to be positive in Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay and induced aneuploidy in Drosophila. To further evaluate the carcinogenic potential of cyanide, the ability of cyanide to induce morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells was studied. Cyanide induced a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation in SHE cells following a 7-day continuous treatment. A significant increase in transformation was observed at potassium cyanide doses of 200 microM and greater. Transformation induced by cyanide was inhibited in a dose-related manner by vitamin E, suggesting a role of oxidative stress in the induction of morphological transformation by cyanide. Further, it was shown that 500 microM cyanide induced oxidative DNA damage in SHE cells, evidenced by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (50-66% increase over control). The induction of oxidative stress by cyanide involved an early and temporal inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) as well as an increased production of reactive oxygen species (1.5- to 2.0-fold over control)

Teuschler L, Klaunig J, Carney E, Chambers J, Conolly R, Gennings C, Giesy J, Hertzberg R, Klaassen C, Kodell R, Paustenbach D, Yang R.
Support of science-based decisions concerning the evaluation of the toxicology of mixtures: a new beginning. Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002 Aug;36(1):34-9. PMID: 12383716.

Abstract.

Park J, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol carcinogenicity: studies on Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Jul;68(1):43-50. PMID: 12075109.  

Abstract. Previous studies showed that 2-butoxyethanol increased liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice following chronic exposure. While the mechanism of 2-butoxyethanol-induced liver carcinogenicity has not been defined, 2-butoxyethanol has been shown to induce hemolysis in rodents via 2-butoxyacetic acid, the major metabolite of 2-butoxyethanol. This toxic effect, coupled with the observation that continued treatment with 2-butoxyethanol results in hemosiderin deposition in the liver, has led to our hypothesis that liver carcinogenicity by 2-butoxyethnaol is mediated via oxidative stress (iron catalyzed) and Kupffer cell activation. The present study used Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation, a surrogate in vitro model for carcinogenesis in vivo, to examine whether 2-butoxyethanol, 2-butoxyacetic acid, or iron (ferrous sulfate) produced cell transformation. SHE cells were treated with either 2-butoxyethanol (0.5-20 mM), 2-butoxyacetic acid (0.5-20 mM), or ferrous sulfate (0.5-75 microg/ml) for 7 days. 2-Butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyacetic acid did not induce cellular transformation. In contrast, treatment with ferrous sulfate (2.5 and 5.0 microg/ml) increased morphological transformation. Cotreatment of ferrous sulfate with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) or (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevented ferrous sulfate-induced transformation, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in SHE cell transformation. The level of oxidative DNA damage (OH8dG) increased following ferrous sulfate treatment in SHE cells; additionally, using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), ferrous sulfate treatment produced an increase in DNA damage. Both DNA lesions were decreased by cotreatment of ferrous sulfate with antioxidants. These data support our proposal that iron, produced indirectly through hemolysis, and not 2-butoxyethanol or its metabolite 2-butoxyacetic acid, is responsible for the observed carcinogenicity of 2-butoxyethanol

Zhang H, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Mechanisms for the induction of oxidative stress in Syrian hamster embryo cells by acrylonitrile. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Jun;67(2):247-55. PMID: 12011484.

Abstract. Chronic administration of acrylonitrile to rats resulted in an increase in the incidence of glial neoplasms of the brain. Recent studies have shown that acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress in rat brain and cultured rat glial cells. Acrylonitrile also induces morphological transformation concomitant with an increase in the formation of oxidized DNA in Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism for the induction of oxidative stress in SHE cells remains unresolved. The present study examined the effects of acrylonitrile on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in SHE cells. SHE cells were treated with subcytolethal doses of acrylonitrile (0, 25, 50, and 75 microg/ml) for 4, 24, and 48 h. Acrylonitrile (50 microg/ml and 75 microg/ml) increased the amount of reactive oxygen species in SHE cells at all time points. Glutathione (GSH) was depleted and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased in SHE cells after 4 h of treatment. The inhibition of these antioxidants was temporal, returning to control values or higher after 24 and 48 h. Xanthine oxidase activity was increased following 24 and 48 h treatment with acrylonitrile. 1-aminobenzotriazole, a suicidal P450 enzyme inhibitor, attenuated the effects of acrylonitrile on catalase and xanthine oxidase in SHE cells, suggesting that P450 metabolism is required for acrylonitrile to produce its effects on these enzymes. Additional studies showed that in the absence of metabolic sources acrylonitrile had no effect on either catalase or superoxide dismutase activity. These results suggest that the induction of oxidative stress by acrylonitrile involves a temporal decrease in antioxidants and increase in xanthine oxidase activity that is mediated by oxidative metabolism of acrylonitrile

Kamendulis LM, Isenberg JS, Smith JH, Pugh G Jr, Lington AW, Klaunig JE. Comparative effects of phthalate monoesters on gap junctional intercellular communication and peroxisome proliferation in rodent and primate hepatocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Apr 26;65(8):569-88. PMID: 11995694.  

Abstract. Several phthalate esters, compounds used as plasticizers in a variety of commercial products, have been shown to induce hepatic tumors in rodents. In this study, the comparative effects of phthalate monoesters on inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication and induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation were assessed in primary cultured hepatocytes from rats, mice, hamsters, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans. A human liver cell line was also utilized. Eight monoesters examined included mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-n-octyl phthalate (MNOP), mono-isononyl phthalate (MINP, 3 types, -1, -2, and -3), mono-isoheptyl phthalate (MIHP), mono-isodecyl phthalate (MIDP), and mono-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (M711P). Gap junctional intercellular communication was measured 4 and 24 h after treatment by lucifer yellow dye coupling. Gap junctional intercellular communication was inhibited in rat and mouse hepatocytes by all eight monoesters in a concentration-dependent manner. In most cases, gap junctional intercellular communication was significantly reduced at the lowest concentrations tested (50 pM). Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication in rodent cells was substantially reversed within 24 h of monoester removal. In contrast, cell-to-cell communication was not inhibited in hamster, cynomolgus, or human hepatocytes or in a human liver cell line at any concentration examined. In rat hepatocytes, peroxisomal beta-oxidation was elevated after treatment with MEHP, MINP, MIHP, and MIDP but not MNOP or M711P, and with all but MIHP in mouse hepatocytes. The eight phthalates produced no marked change on peroxisomal beta-oxidation in hepatocytes from other species. These data provide additional evidence that the toxicological effects of phthalate esters are species specific.

Park J, Kamendulis LM, Friedman MA, Klaunig JE. Acrylamide-induced cellular transformation. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Feb;65(2):177-83. PMID: 11812921.

Abstract. Acrylamide is a monomer of polyacrylamide, whose products are used in biochemistry, the manufacture of paper, water treatment, and as a soil stabilizer. While polymeric acrylamide is nontoxic, the monomer can cause several toxic effects and has the potential for human occupational exposure. While acrylamide is not mutagenic in prokaryotic mutagenesis assays, chronic acrylamide treatment in rodents has been shown to produce tumors in both rats and mice. The mechanism for the induction of tumors by acrylamide is not known. In the present study, we examined the possibility that acrylamide might induce cellular transformation, using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell morphological transformation as well as potential mechanisms for the cellular transformation. Results showed that treatment with 0.5 mM and higher concentrations of acrylamide continuously for 7 days induced morphological transformation. Cotreatment with acrylamide and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl group donor, resulted in the reduction of acrylamide-induced morphological transformation in SHE cells. Cotreatment with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a nonspecific P450 inhibitor, and acrylamide produced no change in morphological transformation when compared to acrylamide treatment only. Cotreatment with acrylamide and DL-buthionone-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, increased the percent of morphologically transformed colonies compared to acrylamide treatment alone. Acrylamide reduced GSH levels in SHE cells, and cotreatment with acrylamide and NAC prevented the acrylamide-induced reduction of GSH. BSO treatment with acrylamide enhanced the depletion of GSH. These results suggest that acrylamide itself, but not oxidative P450 metabolites of acrylamide appear to be involved in acrylamide-induced cellular transformation and that cellular thiol status (possibly GSH) is involved in acrylamide-induced morphological transformation

Park J, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Effects of 2-butoxyethanol on hepatic oxidative damage. Toxicol Lett. 2002 Jan 5;126(1):19-29. PMID: 11738267.

Abstract. 2-Butoxyethanol has been reported to induce an increase in liver tumors in male B6C3F1 mice following chronic inhalation while rats, similarly treated, showed no increase in liver tumors. The mechanism for the selective induction of cancer in mouse liver is unknown, however, 2-butoxyethanol has been shown to induce hemolysis in mice, resulting in an accumulation of hemosiderin (iron) in the liver. Previous studies by our group and others have shown that mouse liver compared to other rodent species has a lower antioxidant capacity and appears to be more susceptible to chemically-induced oxidative damage. Since iron is known to produce hydroxyl radicals (through the Fenton reaction), we have proposed that the 2-butoxyethanol-induced iron overload (through hemolysis) may contribute to the induction of liver neoplasia in the mouse. In the present studies, 2-butoxyethanol induced oxidative stress in the liver of mice following 7-day treatment by gavage. These studies also examined whether 2-butoxyethanol, 2-butoxy acetic acid (a major metabolite of 2-butoxyethanol) or iron (FeSO(4)) produced oxidative stress in mouse and rat hepatocytes. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring oxidative DNA damage (OH8dG), lipid peroxidation (MDA formation) and cellular vitamin E concentrations. Neither 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyacetic acid induced changes in the oxidative stress parameters examined in either rat or mouse hepatocytes. In contrast, FeSO(4) produced a dose-related increase in OH8dG and MDA and a decrease in vitamin E levels following 24 h treatment. Mouse hepatocytes were more sensitive than rat hepatocytes to the oxidative damage induced by the FeSO(4). FeSO(4)-induced oxidative stress was not increased by co-treatment of FeSO(4) with either 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxy acetic acid. These results support the proposal that the induction of hepatic oxidative stress by 2-butoxyethanol in vivo occurs secondary to induction of hemolysis and iron deposition in the liver rather than as a direct action of 2-butoxyethanol or its main metabolite, 2-butoxy acetic acid.

2001

Isenberg JS, Kamendulis LM, Ackley DC, Smith JH, Pugh G Jr, Lington AW, McKee RH, Klaunig JE. Reversibility and persistence of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)- and phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular changes in rodents. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Dec;64(2):192-9. PMID: 11719701.

Abstract. The tumor promotion stage of chemical carcinogenesis has been shown to exhibit a persistence of cellular effects during treatment and the reversibility of these changes upon cessation of treatment. Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and increased replicative DNA synthesis appear to be important in this process. The present study assessed the persistence and reversibility of gap-junctional intercellular communication inhibition, peroxisomal proliferation, and replicative DNA synthesis in livers from male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Dietary administration of 20,000 mg/kg DEHP to male rats for 2 weeks decreased intercellular communication (67% of control) and enhanced replicative DNA synthesis (4.8-fold over control). Elevation of the relative liver weight and the induction of peroxisomal beta oxidation were also observed following treatment with 20,000 mg/Kg DEHP for 2 weeks. Following DEHP administration at a dose of 6000 mg/kg for 18 months, inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication persisted, and the relative liver weight and induction of peroxisomal beta oxidation remained elevated in both rats and male B6C3F1 mice. Treatment of rats and mice with phenobarbital for 18 months (500-mg/kg diet) also produced an increase in relative liver weight and a decrease in cell-to-cell communication. In recovery studies in which DEHP was administered to male F344 rats for 2 weeks and then withdrawn, the relative liver weight, rate of peroxisomal beta oxidation, increase in replicative DNA synthesis, and inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication returned to control values within 2 to 4 weeks after DEHP treatment ceased. Recovery studies with phenobarbital produced similar results. The primary active metabolite of DEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), was detected in the livers of animals treated with DEHP for greater than 2 weeks. However, it could not be detected after removal of DEHP from the diet for 2 weeks. This study demonstrated that inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication, along with indicators of peroxisomal proliferation, including increased relative liver weight and enhanced peroxisomal beta oxidation, persist while DEHP treatment continues but reverses when treatment is stopped. Studies with phenobarbital produced a similar pattern of response

Gottschling BC, Maronpot RR, Hailey JR, Peddada S, Moomaw CR, Klaunig JE, Nyska A. The role of oxidative stress in indium phosphide-induced lung carcinogenesis in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2001 Nov;64(1):28-40. PMID: 11606799.

Abstract. Indium phosphide (IP), widely used in the microelectronics industry, was tested for potential carcinogenicity. Sixty male and 60 female Fischer 344 rats were exposed by aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 weeks (0.1 or 0.3 mg/m(3); stop exposure groups) or 105 weeks (0 or 0.03 mg/m(3) groups) with interim groups (10 animals/group/sex) evaluated at 3 months. After 3-month exposure, severe pulmonary inflammation with numerous infiltrating macrophages and alveolar proteinosis appeared. After 2 years, dose-dependent high incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas occurred in both sexes; four cases of squamous cell carcinomas appeared in males (0.3 mg/m(3)), and a variety of non-neoplastic lung lesions, including simple and atypical hyperplasia, chronic active inflammation, and squamous cyst, occurred in both sexes. To investigate whether inflammation-related oxidative stress functioned in the pathogenesis of IP-related pulmonary lesions, we stained lungs of control and high-dose animals immunohistochemically for four markers indicative of oxidative stress: inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glutathione-S-transferase Pi (GST-Pi), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Paraffin-embedded samples from the 3-month and 2-year control and treated females were used. i-NOS and COX-2 were highly expressed in inflammatory foci after 3 months; at 2 years, all four markers were expressed in non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Most i-NOS staining, mainly in macrophages, occurred in chronic inflammatory and atypical hyperplastic lesions. GST-Pi and 8-OHdG expression occurred in cells of carcinoma epithelium, atypical hyperplasia, and squamous cysts. These findings suggest that IP inhalation causes pulmonary inflammation associated with oxidative stress, resulting in progression to atypical hyperplasia and neoplasia

Xue H, Aziz RM, Sun N, Cassady JM, Kamendulis LM, Xu Y, Stoner GD, Klaunig JEInhibition of cellular transformation by berry extracts. Carcinogenesis. 2001 Feb;22(2):351-6. Erratum in: Carcinogenesis 2001 May;22(5):831-3. PMID: 11181460.

Abstract. Recent studies have examined and demonstrated the potential cancer chemopreventive activity of freeze-dried berries including strawberries and black raspberries. Although ellagic acid, an abundant component in these berries, has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, several studies have reported that other compounds in the berries may also contribute to the observed inhibitory effect. In the present study, freeze-dried strawberries (Fragara ananassa, FA) or black raspberries (Rubus ursinus, RU) were extracted, partitioned and chromatographed into several fractions (FA-F001, FA-F003, FA-F004, FA-F005, FA-DM, FA-ME from strawberries and RU-F001, RU-F003, RU-F004, RU-F005, RU-DM, RU-ME from black raspberries). These extracts, along with ellagic acid, were analyzed for anti-transformation activity in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model. None of the extracts nor ellagic acid by themselves produced an increase in morphological transformation. For assessment of chemopreventive activity, SHE cells were treated with each agent and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 7 days. Ellagic acid, FA-ME and RU-ME fractions produced a dose-dependent decrease in transformation compared with B[a]P treatment only, while other fractions failed to induce a significant decrease. Ellagic acid, FA-ME and RU-ME were further examined using a 24 h co-treatment with B[a]P or a 6 day treatment following 24 h with B[a]P. Ellagic acid showed inhibitory ability in both protocols. FA-ME and RU-ME significantly reduced B[a]P-induced transformation only when co-treated with B[a]P for 24 h. These results suggest that a methanol extract from strawberries and black raspberries may display chemopreventive activity. The possible mechanism by which these methanol fractions (FA-ME, RU-ME) inhibited cell transformation appear to involve interference of uptake, activation, detoxification of B[a]P and/or intervention of DNA binding and DNA repair

Kamendulis LM, Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JEComparative effects of dieldrin on hepatic ploidy, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in rodent liver. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):127-41. PMID: 11209821.

Abstract. Dieldrin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, which is seen only in the mouse, apparently occurs through a nongenotoxic mechanism. Previous studies have demonstrated that dieldrin induces hepatic DNA synthesis in mouse, but not rat liver. A number of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens have been shown to increase hepatocyte nuclear ploidy following acute and subchronic treatment in rodents, suggesting that an induction of hepatocyte DNA synthesis may occur without a concomitant increase in cell division. The current study examined the effects of dieldrin on changes in hepatocyte DNA synthesis, mitosis, apoptosis, and ploidy in mouse liver (the sensitive strain and target tissue for dieldrin-induced carcinogenicity) and the rat liver (an insensitive species). Male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were treated with 0, 1, 3, or 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet and were sampled after 7, 14, 28, or 90 d on diet. Liver from mice fed 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet exhibited significantly increased DNA synthesis and mitosis at 14, 28, or 90 d on diet. In rats, no increase in DNA synthesis or mitotic index was observed. The apoptotic index in liver of mice and rats did not change over the 90-d study period. Exposure of mice to only the highest dose of dieldrin produced a significant increase in octaploid (8N) hepatocytes and a decrease in diploid (2N) hepatocytes, which were restricted primarily to centrilobular hepatocytes, with the periportal region showing little or no change from control. No changes in hepatocyte nuclear ploidy were observed in the rat. This study demonstrates that exposure to high concentrations of dieldrin is accompanied by increased nuclear ploidy and mitosis in mouse, but not rat, liver. It is proposed that the observed increase in nuclear ploidy in the mouse may reflect an adaptive response to dieldrin exposure.

Klaunig, J.E., Kamendulis, L.M. (2001). Role of Oxidative Stress in Chemical Carcinogenesis. In Fuchs and Packer (Eds.), Environmental Stressors (pp.81-102). New York: Marcel Dekker.

2000

Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM, Xu Y. Epigenetic mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2000 Oct;19(10):543-55. PMID: 11211991.

Abstract. Chemically induced cancer is a multi-step process involving damage to the genome initially followed by clonal expansion of the DNA damaged cell eventually leading to a neoplasm. Chemical carcinogens have been shown to impact at all of the stages of the tumorigenesis process. It has become apparent that chemical and physical agents that induce cancer may do so through several different cellular and molecular mechanisms. Epigenetic (nongenotoxic) chemical carcinogens are those agents that function to induce tumor formation by mechanisms exclusive of direct modification or damage to DNA. These agents appear to modulate cell growth and cell death and exhibit dose response relationships between exposure and tumor formation. The exact and/or exclusive mechanisms by which these agents function have not been established, however, changes in cell growth regulation and gene expression are important to tumor formation. This review focuses on several potential mechanisms and cellular processes that may be involved in nongenotoxic chemical carcinogenesis.

Zhang H, Xu Y, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Morphological transformation by 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Aug;56(2):303-12. PubMed PMID: 10910988.

Abstract. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) is one of the most prevalent oxidative DNA modifications found in eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have suggested an association between OH8dG formation and carcinogenesis. However, it is unclear whether OH8dG formation results in the necessary genotoxic events for cancer development. In the present study, the formation of OH8dG and its ability to transform Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells was examined. Methylene blue, a photosensitizer that in the presence of light can generate singlet oxygen by a type II mechanism, was used to produce oxidative DNA damage (predominantly OH8dG) in SHE cells. Photoactivated methylene blue produced a dose-dependent increase in OH8dG as well as a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation in SHE cells. SHE cells transfected with DNA that contained increasing concentrations of OH8dG displayed a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation. Treatment with beta-carotene (a singlet oxygen quencher) inhibited both the formation of OH8dG and the induction of morphological transformation in photoactivated methylene blue-treated SHE cells. These results suggest that formation of OH8dG can induce morphological transformation and provide further support for a role of OH8dG formation in the carcinogenesis process

Pugh G Jr, Isenberg JS, Kamendulis LM, Ackley DC, Clare LJ, Brown R, Lington  AW, Smith JH, Klaunig JE. Effects of di-isononyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and clofibrate in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Jul;56(1):181-8. PMID: 10869467.

Abstract. The effects of the peroxisome proliferators di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were evaluated in young adult male cynomolgus monkeys after 14 days of treatment, with emphasis on detecting hepatic and other effects seen in rats and mice after treatment with high doses of phthalates. Groups of 4 monkeys received DINP (500 mg/kg/day), DEHP (500 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (0.5% methyl cellulose, 10 ml/kg) by intragastric intubation for 14 consecutive days. Clofibrate (250 mg/kg/day), a hypolipidemic drug used for cholesterol reduction in human patients was used as a reference substance. None of the test substances had any effect on body weight or liver weights. Histopathological examination of tissues from these animals revealed no distinctive treatment-related effects in the liver, kidney, or testes. There were also no changes in any of the hepatic markers for peroxisomal proliferation, including peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PBOX) or replicative DNA synthesis. Additionally, in situ dye transfer studies using fresh liver slices revealed that DINP, DEHP, and clofibrate had no effect on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). None of the test substances produced any toxicologically important changes in urinalysis, hematology, or clinical chemistry; however, clofibrate produced some emesis, small increases in serum triglyceride, decreased calcium, and decreased weights of testes/epididymides and thyroid/parathyroid. The toxicological significance of these small changes is questionable. The absence of observable hepatic effects in monkeys at doses that produce hepatic effects in rodents suggests that DINP, DEHP, and clofibrate would also not elicit in primates other effects such as liver cancer. These data, along with results from in vitro hepatocyte studies, indicate that rodents are not good animal models for predicting the hepatic effects of phthalates in primates, including humans

Isenberg JS, Kamendulis LM, Smith JH, Ackley DC, Pugh G Jr, Lington AW, Klaunig JE. Effects of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), DNA synthesis, and peroxisomal beta oxidation (PBOX) in rat, mouse, and hamster liver. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Jul;56(1):73-85. PMID: 10869455.

Abstract. The present study evaluated the effect of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PBOX) activity, and replicative DNA synthesis in several rodent species with differing susceptibilities to peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatic tumorigenesis. A low (non-tumorigenic) and high (tumorigenic) dietary concentration of DEHP was administered to male F344 rats for 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Additionally, a previously non-tumorigenic dose (1000 ppm) and tumorigenic dose of DEHP (12,000 ppm), as determined by chronic bioassay data, were examined following 2 weeks dietary administration. Male B6C3F1 mice were fed the non-tumorigenic concentration, 500 ppm, and the tumorigenic concentration, 6000 ppm, of DEHP for two and four weeks. The hepatic effects of low and high concentrations of DEHP, 1000 and 6000 ppm, were also examined in male Syrian Golden hamsters (refractory to peroxisome proliferator-induced tumorigenicity). In rat and mouse liver, a concentration-dependent increase in the relative liver weight, PBOX activity, and replicative DNA synthesis was observed at the earliest time point examined. Concurrent to these observations was an inhibition of GJIC. In hamster liver, a slight increase in the relative liver weight, PBOX activity, and replicative DNA synthesis was observed. However, these effects were not of the same magnitude or consistency as those observed in rats or mice. Furthermore, DEHP had no effect on GJIC in hamster liver at any of the time points examined (2 and 4 weeks). HPLC analysis of DEHP and its primary metabolites, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and phthalate acid (PA), indicated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the hepatic concentration of MEHP. At equivalent dietary concentrations and time points, the presence of MEHP, the primary metabolite responsible for the hepatic effects of DEHP, demonstrated a species-specific response. The largest increase in the hepatic concentration of MEHP was observed in mice, which was greater than the concentration observed in rats. The hepatic concentration of MEHP was lowest in hamsters. Hepatic concentrations of DEHP and phthalic acid were minimal and did not correlate with concentration and time. Collectively, these data demonstrate the inhibition of hepatic GJIC and increased replicative DNA synthesis correlated with the observed dose- and species-specific tumorigenicity of DEHP and may be predictive indicators of the nongenotoxic carcinogenic potential of phthalate esters

Kingery JR, Sowinski KM, Kraus MA, Klaunig JE, Mueller BA. Vancomycin assay performance in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jun;20(6):653-6. PMID: 10853620.

Abstract. To compare the performance of polyclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay (pFPIA) with that of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) in patients receiving vancomycin and hemodialysis. Outpatient hemodialysis center. Seven subjects with end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis 3 times/week with a cellulose triacetate hemodialyzer. Subjects received vancomycin 1000 mg intradialytically during the first study session and 750 mg every other hemodialysis session thereafter for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained throughout the study, and vancomycin serum concentrations were determined by pFPIA and EMIT. The mean +/- SD difference (estimate of bias) between assays was -1.10 +/- 1.35 mg/L. The limits of agreement (mean difference +/- 1.96 x SD) between them were -3.80-1.60 mg/L. Our data suggest that the manufacturer’s changes in the vancomycin pFPIA eliminated overestimation of drug concentrations in patients undergoing high-permeability hemodialysis

Smith JH, Isenberg JS, Pugh G Jr, Kamendulis LM, Ackley D, Lington AW, Klaunig JE. Comparative in vivo hepatic effects of Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and related C7-C11 dialkyl phthalates on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PBOX), and DNA synthesis in rat and mouse liver. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Apr;54(2):312-21. PMID: 10774813.

Abstract. The short-term hepatic effects of DINP (CAS 68515-48-0, designated DINP-1) in rats and mice were evaluated at tumorigenic and nontumorigenic doses from previous chronic studies. Groups of male F344 rats were fed diets with DINP-1 at concentrations of 0, 1000, or 12,000 ppm and male B6C3F1 mice at 0, 500, or 6000 ppm DINP-1. After 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, changes in liver weight, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), peroxisomal beta-oxidation (PBOX), and replicative DNA synthesis were examined. In addition, hepatic and serum concentrations of the parent compound and major metabolites were determined. Relative to controls in both species, increased liver weight and PBOX at the high dose of DINP-1 were consistent with peroxisomal proliferation. Hepatic GJIC was inhibited and DNA synthesis was increased at the high dose of DINP-1, which is also consistent with the tumorigenic response in rats and mice reported in other chronic studies at these doses. These hepatic effects were not observed at the low doses of DINP-1. At comparable low doses of DINP-1 in other chronic studies, no liver tumors were observed in rats and mice. The monoester metabolite (MINP-1) was detected in the liver at greater concentrations in mice than rats. This result is also consistent with the dose-response observations in rat and mouse chronic studies. Additionally, other structurally similar dialkyl phthalate esters ranging from C7 to C11 were evaluated using a similar protocol for comparison to DINP-1; these included an alternative isomeric form of DINP (DINP-A), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP), di-heptyl, nonyl undecyl phthalate (D711P), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Collectively, these data indicate that in rats and mice, DINP-1 and other C7-C11 phthalates exhibit a threshold for inducing hepatic cellular events. Further, where previous chronic data were available for these compounds, these phthalates elicited hepatic effects at doses that correlated with the tumorigenic response. Overall, these studies suggest a good correlation between the inhibition of GJIC when compared with the data on production of liver tumors in chronic studies

Zhang H, Kamendulis LM, Jiang J, Xu Y, Klaunig JE. Acrylonitrile-induced morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Apr;21(4):727-33. PubMed PMID: 10753209.

Abstract. Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a monomer used in the synthesis of rubber, fibers and plastics. Previous studies demonstrated that ACN induces brain neoplasms (predominately astrocytomas) in rats following chronic treatment. While the mechanisms of ACN-induced glial cell carcinogenicity have not been completely elucidated, investigations by our group and others have suggested a role for the induction of oxidative stress and the resultant oxidative damage in this process. In vitro cell transformation models are useful for detecting and studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Cell transformation by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells exhibits a multistage process similar to that observed in vivo, for both non-genotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens. In the present study, the ability of ACN to induce morphological transformation and oxidative damage was examined in SHE cells. ACN induced an increase in morphological transformation at doses of 50, 62.5 and 75 microg/ml (maximum sub-toxic dose tested) following 7 days of continuous treatment. SHE cells exposed to ACN for 24 h failed to increase morphological transformation. Morphological transformation by ACN was inhibited by co-treatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate (EGCG) for 7 days. Treatment of SHE cells with 75 microg/ml ACN produced a significant increase in 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine that was also inhibited by co-treatment with alpha-tocopherol or EGCG. These results support the proposal that oxidative stress and the resulting oxidative damage is involved in ACN-induced carcinogenicity

Isenberg JS, Klaunig JE. Role of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) in rotenone-induced apoptosis in liver cells. Toxicol Sci. 2000  Feb;53(2):340-51. PMID: 10696782.

Abstract. Rotenone inhibits spontaneously and chemically induced hepatic tumorigenesis in rodents through the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanism for the induction of apoptosis by rotenone has not been defined. Mitochondrial dysfunction, in particular the induction of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT), has been implicated in the cascade of events involved in the induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain reduces the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (delta(psi)m), which may induce the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the subsequent MPT. Fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst 33258-stained WB-F344 cells, a rat-liver cell line, was utilized to examine the effect of the mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, rotenone (0.5-5 microM), atractyloside (5-10 microM), and cyclosporin A (2.5-10 microM) on apoptosis. A time- and concentration-dependent increase in liver cell apoptosis was observed following treatment with rotenone and atractyloside (11.7- and 7.7-fold, respectively, over solvent control). Cotreatment with 7.5- and 10 microM-cyclosporin A for 12 h inhibited the apoptogenicity of 5-microM rotenone treatment. A similar effect was observed following cyclosporin A cotreatment with atractyloside. Rotenone induced a rapid increase in apoptosis (within 20 min of treatment). By 2 h of treatment, the morphological appearance of apoptosis was similar to that observed in cultures treated continuously with rotenone for 12 h. Inhibition studies demonstrated that cyclosporin A prevented apoptosis if the exposure to it occurred prior to the 20-min threshold necessary to induce apoptosis by rotenone. Mitochondrial function was examined by staining with the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta(psi)m)-sensitive fluorochrome, MitoTracker Red (CMXRos) and confirmed utilizing cytofluorometric analysis of DiOC6(3)-stained cells. Rotenone (5.0-microM) and atractyloside (5.0-microM) reduced the percent of CMXRos or DiOC6(3)-positive (delta(psi)m-positive) liver cells within 15 min and throughout the duration of the study (6 h) to approximately 65-80% and 50-80% of control. However, cotreatment with concentrations of cyclosporin A that inhibited the apoptogenicity of rotenone and atractyloside prevented the rotenone- and atractyloside-induced reduction of the delta(psi)m. Therefore, the apoptogenic effect of rotenone and atractyloside appears to occur rapidly (within 20 min) and is irreversible once mitochondrial damage occurs. The inhibition of the rotenone- and atractyloside-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by cyclosporin A suggests the MPT may be involved in the induction of apoptosis by rotenone.

Klaunig, J.E. (2000). Epigenetic Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis. In Chemical Carcinogenesis: Epigenetic Mechanisms and Dose Response, BELLE Newsletter, 9(1), 2-21.

1999

Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM. Mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention in hepatic carcinogenesis: modulation of focal lesion growth in mice. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):101-6. PMID: 10630597.

Abstract. Studies in our laboratory have concentrated on further understanding the mechanism by which chemicals induce cancer and the means to prevent or retard this process. Recent investigations have revolved around the role of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in the induction of cancer by nongenotoxic carcinogens. Hepatocarcinogenic compounds including selective chlorinated hydrocarbons appeared to induce oxidative stress in the liver. This oxidative stress and oxidative damage in turn may be responsible for the tumor-promoting activity of these compounds. Reduction of oxidative damage by antioxidants, or dietary-restriction, results in an ablation of the induction of selective cell growth by these agents. The oxidative stress induced by nongenotoxic agents may influence cell proliferation and/or apoptosis in the preneoplastic cells. Our studies with nongenotoxic hepatic carcinogens showed a dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress and an increase in hepatic focal lesion growth. Antioxidant dietary supplementation or caloric restriction prevented the lesion growth. This appeared to be through an increase in apoptosis in the hepatic lesions.

Brophy DF, Sowinski KM, Kraus MA, Moe SM, Klaunig JE, Mueller BA. Small and middle molecular weight solute clearance in nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int. 1999 Nov-Dec;19(6):534-9. PMID: 10641773.

Abstract.To determine the dialysate-to-plasma (D/P) concentration ratios and peritoneal dialytic clearance (CI(D)) of substances with a wide range of molecular weights in subjects receiving a simulated nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD) session. Open-label single-dose study. Six end-stage renal disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clinical research center of a university-affiliated hospital. Subjects received intravenous gentamicin and vancomycin on the first day of the study. Subjects received no PD until their return on the following day, when subjects underwent a simulated NIPD session utilizing four 2- to 2.5-L peritoneal dialysate dwells of 2 hours. Blood and dialysate samples were collected immediately before the session and after each dialysate dwell for determination of urea, creatinine, gentamicin, vancomycin, and beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) concentrations. Each solute’s D/P concentration ratio and peritoneal CI(D) were calculated. The (mean +/- SD) 2-hour D/P concentration ratios were 0.78 +/- 0.05 (urea), 0.49 +/- 0.11 (creatinine), 0.38 +/- 0.08 (gentamicin), 0.11 +/- 0.06 (vancomycin), and 0.07 +/- 0.03 (beta2M). Peritoneal CI(D) values (mL/min of dialysis) were 19.0 +/- 2.8 (urea), 12.1 +/- 3.5 (creatinine), 8.4 +/- 2.8 (gentamicin), 2.7 +/- 1.5 (vancomycin), and 1.7 +/- 0.8 (beta2M). The D/P concentration ratios and peritoneal CI(D) values for urea, creatinine, and gentamicin were significantly different from vancomycin and beta2M (repeated measures ANOVA, p < 0.05). Beta2-microglobulin peritoneal CI(D) was strongly related to gentamicin peritoneal CI(D) (r = 0.96, p < 0.05). Small molecular weight solutes have significantly greater D/P and peritoneal CI(D) than middle molecular weight solutes in NIPD. In NIPD, daily peritoneal CI(D) of beta2M is lower than that reported in continuous ambulatory PD. NIPD also results in lower drug CI(D) than that reported in continuous ambulatory PD studies.

Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, North DW, Sielken RL Jr, Ross CE, Wright AS, Xu  Y, Kamendulis LM, Klaunig JE. Monograph: reassessment of human cancer risk of aldrin/dieldrin. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Oct 5;109(3):123-86. PMID: 10555138.

Abstract. In 1987, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified aldrin and dieldrin as category B2 carcinogens, i.e. probable human carcinogens, based largely on the increase in liver tumors in mice fed either organochlorine insecticide. At that date, the relevant epidemiology was deemed inadequate to influence the cancer risk assessment. More time has now elapsed since early exposures of manufacturing workers to aldrin/dieldrin; therefore, updated epidemiological data possess more power to detect exposure-related differences in cancer risk and mortality. Also, recent experimental studies provide a plausible mode of action to explain the mouse specificity of dieldrin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and call into question the relevance of this activity to human cancer risk. This monograph places this new information within the historic and current perspectives of human cancer risk assessment, including EPA’s 1996 Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Updated epidemiological studies of manufacturing workers in which lifetime exposures to aldrin/dieldrin have been quantified do not indicate increased mortality or cancer risk. In fact, at the middle range of exposures, there is evidence of a decrease in both mortality from all causes and cancer. Recent experimental studies indicate that dieldrin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice occurs through a nongenotoxic mode of action, in which the slow oxidative metabolism of dieldrin is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species, depletion of hepatic antioxidant defenses (particularly alpha-tocopherol), and peroxidation of liver lipids. Dieldrin-induced oxidative stress or its sequelae apparently result in modulation of gene expression that favors expansion of initiated mouse, but not rat, liver cells; thus, dieldrin acts as a nongenotoxic promoter/accelerator of background liver tumorigenesis in the mouse. Within the framework of EPA’s Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, it is proposed that the most appropriate cancer risk descriptor for aldrin/dieldrin, relating to the mouse liver tumor response, is ‘not likely a human carcinogen’, a descriptor consistent with the example of phenobarbital cited by EPA.

Kamendulis LM, Jiang J, Xu Y, Klaunig JE. Induction of oxidative stress and oxidative damage in rat glial cells by acrylonitrile. Carcinogenesis. 1999 Aug;20(8):1555-60. PMID: 10426806.

Abstract. Chronic treatment of rats with acrylonitrile (ACN) resulted in a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas). While the exact mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unresolved, non-genotoxic and possibly tumor promotion modes of action appear to be involved in the induction of glial tumors. Recent studies have shown that ACN induced oxidative stress selectively in rat brain in a dose-responsive manner. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in a rat glial cell line, a target tissue, and in cultured rat hepatocytes, a non-target tissue of ACN carcinogenicity. Glial cells and hepatocytes were treated for 1, 4 and 24 h with sublethal concentrations of ACN. ACN induced an increase in oxidative DNA damage, as evidenced by increased production of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in glial cells but not in rat hepatocytes. Hydroxyl radical formation following ACN treatment was also selectively increased in glial cells. Following 1 and 4 h of ACN exposure, the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione, as well as the activities of the enzymatic antioxidants catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the rat glial cells. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of glutathione peroxidase were not affected by ACN treatment in rat glial cells. No changes in any of these biomarkers of oxidative stress were observed in hepatocytes treated with ACN. These data indicate that ACN selectively induced oxidative stress in rat glial cells

Herrman CE, Sanders RA, Klaunig JE, Schwarz LR, Watkins JB 3rd. Decreased apoptosis as a mechanism for hepatomegaly in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Jul;50(1):146-51. PMID: 10445763.

Abstract. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in both humans and animals leads to structural and functional changes including hepatomegaly. This study examined hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and apoptosis, three basic aspects of tissue growth, in livers of Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats made diabetic by iv injection of streptozotocin 8, 30, or 90 days previously. Immunohistochemical measurement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that hepatic DNA labeling indices were similar in normal control animals and diabetic rats 30 or 90 days post diabetic induction, but were reduced to 45 to 50% of control in insulin-treated diabetic animals, perhaps due to altered receptor activity or to partial insulin resistance, as reported previously. Flow cytometry indicated a 613% increase in diploid hepatocytes in the livers of diabetic rats 30 days after the onset of diabetes, compared to control. Diabetic livers contained 29% fewer tetraploid cells, 81% fewer octaploid cells, and 20% more binucleated hepatocytes than normal controls. At 90 days, the overall smaller size of hepatocytes in diabetic tissue was evidenced by more cells per area. Insulin treatment prevented some of these changes, but did not restore ploidy to a normal distribution. Mitosis, while 300% of normal at 8 days after streptozotocin injection, was reduced to 25% of normal after 90 days of diabetes. The morphological evidence of apoptosis was decreased by 23% to 76% in the diabetic liver, and was reversed but not normalized by insulin treatment. This study indicates that the hepatomegaly observed in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes may be due primarily to early hyperplasia, and later decreased apoptosis

Kamendulis LM, Jiang J, Zhang H, deFeijter-Rupp H, Trosko JE, Klaunig JEThe effect of acrylonitrile on gap junctional intercellular communication in rat astrocytes. Cell Biol Toxicol. 1999 Jun;15(3):173-83. PMID: 10580550.

Abstract. Rats chronically exposed to acrylonitrile (ACN) have shown a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of astrocytomas in the brain. The mechanism(s) by which ACN induces cancer in rodents has not been established. ACN does not appear to be directly genotoxic in the brain and thus a nongenotoxic mode of action has been proposed. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been shown to be a property of many nongenotoxic carcinogens. The present study examined the effects of ACN on GJIC in a rat astrocyte transformed cell line, DI TNC1 cells (a target cell for ACN carcinogenicity) and primary cultured hepatocytes (a nontarget cell for ACN carcinogenicity). ACN inhibited GJIC in rat astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of GJIC was observed following 2 h treatment with 0.10 mmol/L and 1.00 mmol/L ACN. However, in primary cultured hepatocytes, ACN exposed did not result in inhibition of GJIC even after 48 h of continued treatment. In the astrocytes, GJIC inhibition plateaued after 4 h of treatment and remained blocked throughout the entire experimental period examined. Inhibition of GJIC in DI TNC1 cells was reversed by removal of ACN from the culture medium after 4 or 24 h of treatment. Cotreatment of astrocytes with vitamin E reduced the effect of ACN-induced inhibition of GJIC. Similarly, inhibition of GJIC was prevented by treatment with 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (OTC), a precursor of glutathione synthesis. Decreasing cellular glutathione by treatment with buthionine sulfoxamine alone (without ACN) did not affect GJIC in astrocytes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that treatment with ACN caused a selective inhibition of GJIC in rat DI TNC1 astrocytes (the target cell type), but not in rat hepatocytes (a nontarget tissue). Inhibition of GJIC in astrocytes was reversed by treatment with antioxidants and suggests a potential role for oxidative stress in ACN-induced carcinogenesis.

Klaunig JE, Xu Y, Han C, Kamendulis LM, Chen J, Heiser C, Gordon MS, Mohler ER 3rd. The effect of tea consumption on oxidative stress in smokers and nonsmokers. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999 Apr;220(4):249-54. PMID: 10202398.

Abstract. While the anticarcinogenic effects of tea in animal models have been reported by several groups, human epidemiological studies examining tea consumption and cancer prevention have produced equivocal results. The beneficial properties of tea to human health may be related to the antioxidant properties of tea components. However, little evidence has been provided that tea consumption can either increase the antioxidant capacity or decrease oxidative stress in humans. In the present study, the effects of tea treatment (green tea) on biomarkers of oxidative stress were investigated in smokers and nonsmokers in two volunteer study groups (one in China and the other in United States). Green tea consumption in both study groups decreased oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG in white blood cells and urine), lipid peroxidation (MDA in urine), and free radical generation (2, 3-DHBA in urine) in smokers. Nonsmokers (US study group) also exhibited a decrease in overall oxidative stress.

Lahiri, D.K., Xu, Y., Klaunig, J.E., Baiyewu, O., Ogunniyi, A., Hall, K., Hendrie, H., Sahota, A. (1999). Effect of Oxidative Stress on DNA Damage and Beta-Amyloid Precursor Proteins in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines from a Nigerian Population. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 893, 331-336. PMID: 10672260.

Abstract. The epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is strongly associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Caucasian populations, but our studies suggest that APOE epsilon 4 is not a risk factor for AD in Nigerian blacks and is a weak risk factor in African-Americans. The prevalence of AD is lower in Nigerians than in African-Americans. Increased oxidative damage to macromolecules in brain tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported in AD. Here we examined the effects of endogenous and induced oxidative stress on total (nuclear and mitochondrial) DNA damage in lymphoblastoid cell lines (5 probable AD and 3 controls) from Ibadan, Nigeria. Cells were exposed to 200 microM t-butyl peroxide (a generator of ROS) for 4 hours. Total DNA was isolated and digested with nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase. DNA fragments were separated by HPLC and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG, an indicator of DNA damage) and deoxyguanosine (dG) determined. We did not detect a significant difference in the OH8dG/dG ratio in untreated or treated cell lines in the two groups, and this was independent of APOE genotype. We also examined, by Western blotting, the level of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is involved in AD. The level of the heat shock protein (HSP-70) was examined as a control. There was a slight decrease in levels of APP and HSP-70 following treatment. Studies in cell lines from Caucasian subjects have shown an increase in mitochondrial DNA damage following oxidative challenge. Our preliminary results suggest that African populations are less vulnerable to chemical-induced oxidative DNA damage

Jiang, J., Klaunig, J.E. (1999). Cell Contact and Cell Communication. In V.W. Pentreath (Ed.), Neurotoxicity In Vitro (pp. 197–209). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.

Klaunig, J.E. (1999). Low Level Exposures: Implications for Regulatory Agencies – Summary and Comments, BELLE Newsletter, 8(1), 24.

1998

Jiang J, Xu Y, Klaunig JE. Induction of oxidative stress in rat brain by acrylonitrile (ACN). Toxicol Sci. 1998 Dec;46(2):333-41. PMID: 10048137.

Abstract. Chronic treatment with acrylonitrile (ACN) has been shown to produce a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas) in rats. The mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unclear. While ACN has been reported to induce DNA damage in a number of short-term systems, evidence for a genotoxic mechanism of tumor induction is the brain is not strong. Other toxic mechanisms appear to participate in the induction of tumor or induce the astrocytomas solely. In particular, nongenotoxic mechanisms of carcinogen induction have been implicated in this ACN-induced carcinogenic effect in the rat brain. One major pathway of ACN metabolism is through glutathione (GSH) conjugation. Extensive utilization and depletion of GSH, an important intracellular antioxidant, by ACN may lead to cellular oxidative stress. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were administered ACN at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water and sampled after 14, 28, or 90 days of continuous treatment. Oxidative DNA damage indicated by the presence of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) and lipid peroxidation indicated by the presence of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product, in rat brains and livers were examined. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined in different rat tissues. Both the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin E) and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in rat brains and livers were measured. Increased levels of OH8dG, MDA, and ROS were found in the brains of ACN-treated rats. Decreased levels of GSH and activities of catalase and SOD were also observed in the brains of ACN-treated rats compared to the control group. Interestingly, there were no changes of these indicators of oxidative stress in the livers of ACN-treated rats. Rat liver is not a target for ACN-induced carcinogenesis. These data indicate that ACN selectively induces oxidative stress in rat brain at doses that produce carcinogenesis in chronic treatment studies.

Crouch DJ, Frank JF, Farrell LJ, Karsch HM, Klaunig JE. A multiple-site laboratory evaluation of three on-site urinalysis drug-testing devices. J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Oct;22(6):493-502. PMID: 9788525.

Abstract. Presented are findings from a multisite laboratory evaluation comparing on-site urinalysis drug-test results to results from Syva EMIT immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three laboratories participated in the NHTSA-funded project. Specimens were tested for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, cannabinoids, and opiates. Each laboratory selected 20 urines that tested positive for a single drug/drug class and 20 that tested negative to challenge the on-site drug-testing devices. Qualitative and quantitative GC-MS confirmations were performed to ensure that all positive samples contained the target drug(s)/metabolite(s) and that all negative samples did not contain the target analytes. EZ-SCREEN, ONTRAK, and TRIAGE on-site test kits were selected for evaluation. On-site false-positive results, in which GC-MS-verified negative urine samples gave positive on-site results, were rare. Two such errors were recorded with both EZ-SCREEN and TRIAGE. Cross-reactivity from samples containing GC-MS-verified high concentrations of alternate drugs was also rare. One cross-reactive error was recorded while testing for cocaine with EZ-SCREEN, a second while testing for benzodiazepines with ONTRAK, and a third while testing for cocaine with ONTRAK. The EZ-SCREEN kit did not appear to adhere to a cutoff concentration as demonstrated by the number of samples that contained low concentrations of the target drugs that tested positive with this device. A significant finding of this study was that comparing on-site test device results with those of EMIT for samples with drug concentrations near the reporting cutoff was very complex. It required a thorough knowledge of the performance of each device, EMIT, and GC-MS. It also required an investigation of each discrepant result-a consideration not taken in many previous evaluations of on-site testing devices. Compared with current federal guidelines for workplace urinalysis testing, more donor samples would screen positive for cannabinoids and cocaine by the on-site devices than by EMIT immunoassay. However, fewer would be reported as positive because most contained GC-MS-determined drug concentrations lower than the federal confirmation and reporting limits

Bachowski S, Xu Y, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Role of oxidative stress in the selective toxicity of dieldrin in the mouse liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Jun;150(2):301-9. PMID: 9653061.

Abstract.  Dieldrin, an organochlorine insecticide, induces hepatic tumors in mice but not in rats. Although the mechanism(s) responsible for this species specificity is not fully understood, accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved. This study examined the association of dieldrin-induced hepatic DNA synthesis with the modulation of biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]) and DNA (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [oh8dG]), in male B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats fed dieldrin (0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg/kg diet) for 7, 14, 28, and 90 days. The nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system (ascorbic acid, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol) were also examined. Increased urinary MDA was observed in mice fed 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet for 7, 14, 28, and 90 days; while increased hepatic MDA was seen only after 7 days in mice fed 0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet and after 14 days in mice fed 10 mg/kg diet. In rats, dieldrin had no effect on either hepatic MDA or urine MDA levels after 7, 14, and 28 days of treatment. A dose-dependent increase in urinary MDA was observed in rats at the 90-day sampling time. The only significant elevation in urinary or hepatic oh8dG content was limited to urinary oh8dG in mice fed 10 mg/kg dieldrin diet for 14 days. Dietary dieldrin produced sustained decreases in hepatic and serum alpha-tocopherol and sustained elevations in hepatic ascorbic acid in both mice and rats. Rats, however, possessed a three- to four-fold higher content of endogenous or basal (control) hepatic alpha-tocopherol; and, even when fed 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet, the levels of hepatic alpha-tocopherol were maintained at higher levels than those of mice fed control diet. In both rats and mice fed dieldrin, transient (14 and 28 days on diet) elevations in hepatic glutathione were observed. These data support the hypothesis that the species specificity of dieldrin-induced hepatotoxicity may be related to dieldrin’s ability to induce oxidative stress in the liver of mice, but not in rats. Only in mice fed dieldrin was a temporal association of increases in hepatic MDA content and hepatic DNA synthesis seen, suggesting that oxidative damage (shown by increased lipid peroxidation) may be involved in early events in dieldrin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats may be protected from dieldrin-induced oxidative stress by a more effective antioxidant defense system, characterized by higher basal levels of hepatic alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid than that seen in the mouse.

Watkins JB 3rd, Klaunig JE, Smith HM, Cornwell P, Sanders RA. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes increases gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity but not expression in rat liver. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 1998;12(4):219-25. PMID: 9580874.

Abstract. Earlier work describing increased biliary excretion of the acetaminophen-cysteine conjugate advanced the hypothesis that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increases gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) expression in Sprague-Dawley rats. To test this hypothesis, rats were divided into control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of 45 mg streptozotocin/kg body weight and was effectively controlled by insulin treatment in the appropriate group. Densitometric quantification demonstrated that hepatic GGT activity in diabetic rats was significantly increased when compared to normal and insulin-treated diabetic controls. Histochemical staining of liver was greater in female than in male rats, and staining increased in female rat liver as the duration of diabetes lengthened from 30 to 90 days. GGT activity was increased by diabetes in liver canalicular-enriched and basolateral-enriched membrane preparations, and it was unchanged in renal brush border-enriched membranes. Total mRNA isolated from diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rat livers did not conclusively demonstrate an elevation of GGT mRNA relative to normal. Western blot analysis showed no differences in the amount of GGT in diabetic versus normal rat livers. These data indicate that streptozotocin-induced diabetes does not alter the expression of, but does increase the activity of, GGT in liver.

Kolaja KL, Xu Y, Walborg EF Jr, Stevenson DE, Klaunig JE. Vitamin E modulation of dieldrin-induced hepatic focal lesion growth in mice. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Mar 27;53(6):479-92. PMID: 9537283.

Abstract. The effect of vitamin E on dieldrin-induced hepatic focal lesion growth in male B6C3F1 mice previously treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. After hepatic focal lesions were formed, mice were placed into one of the following treatment groups: Group 1, 50 mg vitamin E/kg diet (control NIH-07 diet); Group 2, 10 mg dieldrin/kg NIH-07 diet; Group 3, 10 mg dieldrin and 450 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet; and Group 4, 450 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet. Mice were killed and necropsied after 30 and 60 d of dietary treatment. The effect of treatment on lesion growth was examined by measuring the number of focal lesions per liver and the relative hepatic focal lesion volume. In addition, the possible cellular mechanism of focal hepatocyte growth was investigated by examining both focal DNA synthesis and apoptosis. Dieldrin treatment alone (Group 2) increased the focal lesion volume, focal lesion number, and focal lesion labeling index. Supplementation with vitamin E (Group 3) blocked this effect. Vitamin E supplementation to the diet alone (Group 4) also enhanced focal lesion growth and increased the number of lesions per liver, the relative focal volume, and the labeling index in hepatic focal lesions. Interestingly, vitamin E supplementation inhibited apoptosis in normal liver but did not produce an observable decrease in apoptosis in hepatic focal lesions. The present study showed that dieldrin (Group 2) or vitamin E supplementation alone (Group 4) promoted the growth of hepatic focal lesions in mice. However, when vitamin E is supplemented to dieldrin-fed mice (Group 3), there is an inhibition of hepatic focal lesion growth.

Klaunig JE, Xu Y, Isenberg JS, Bachowski S, Kolaja KL, Jiang J, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr. The role of oxidative stress in chemical carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106 Suppl 1:289-95. Review. PMID: 9539021.

Abstract. Oxidative stress results when the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overrides the antioxidant capability of the target cell; oxidative damage from the interaction of reactive oxygen with critical cellular macromolecules may occur. ROS may interact with and modify cellular protein, lipid, and DNA, which results in altered target cell function. The accumulation of oxidative damage has been implicated in both acute and chronic cell injury including possible participation in the formation of cancer. Acute oxidative injury may produce selective cell death and a compensatory increase in cell proliferation. This stimulus may result in the formation of newly initiated preneoplastic cells and/or enhance the selective clonal expansion of latent initiated preneoplastic cells. Similarly, sublethal acute oxidative injury may produce unrepaired DNA damage and result in the formation of new mutations and, potentially, new initiated cells. In contrast, sustained chronic oxidative injury may lead to a nonlethal modification of normal cellular growth control mechanisms. Cellular oxidative stress can modify intercellular communication, protein kinase activity, membrane structure and function, and gene expression, and result in modulation of cell growth. We examined the role of oxidative stress as a possible mechanism by which nongenotoxic carcinogens may function. In studies with the selective mouse liver carcinogen dieldrin, a species-specific and dose-dependent decrease in liver antioxidant concentrations with a concomitant increase in ROS formation and oxidative damage was seen. This increase in oxidative stress correlated with an increase in hepatocyte DNA synthesis. Antioxidant supplementation prevented the dieldrin-induced cellular changes. Our findings suggest that the effect of nongenotoxic carcinogens (if they function through oxidative mechanisms) may be amplified in rodents but not in primates because of rodents’ greater sensitivity to ROS. These results and findings reported by others support a potential role for oxidative-induced injury in the cancer process specifically during the promotion stage

Dragan Y, Klaunig J, Maronpot R, Goldsworthy T. Mechanisms of susceptibility to mouse liver carcinogenesis. Toxicol Sci. 1998 Jan;41(1):3-7. PMID: 9520336.

Abstract.

Klaunig, J.E., Kolaja, K.L. (1998). Chemically Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis. In G.L. Plaa and W. R. Hewitt (Eds.), Toxicology of the Liver (pp. 93-121). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis

1997

Isenberg JS, Kolaja KL, Ayoubi SA, Watkins JB 3rd, Klaunig JE. Inhibition of  WY-14,643 induced hepatic lesion growth in mice by rotenone. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Aug;18(8):1511-9. PMID: 9276624.

Abstract.  The effect of rotenone treatment on [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio] acetic acid (WY-14,643) hepatic lesion growth in male B6C3F1 mice was investigated. Following induction of hepatic focal lesions by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) 35 mg/kg twice a week for 8 weeks, mice were placed into one of the four treatment groups: group I, control NIH-07 diet (control diet), group II, rotenone (600 mg/kg diet), group III NIH-07 diet containing WY-14,643 (1000 mg/kg diet), and group IV, NIH-07 diet containing WY-14,643 (1000 mg/kg diet) and rotenone (600 mg/ kg diet). Mice were killed after 30 and 60 days of dietary treatment. The effect of treatment with WY-14,643 and rotenone on hepatic lesion growth was examined by estimating the number of focal lesions per liver and the relative volume of focal lesions. WY-14,643 (group III) increased both the number and the volume of focal lesions. In particular, an increase in number and volume of basophilic lesions was seen. Co-treatment with WY-14,643 and rotenone (group IV) decreased both the number and the volume of the total number of focal lesions and basophilic foci compared with WY-14,643 treatment alone (group II). Alterations in the growth of hepatic focal lesions was further investigated by examining DNA synthesis and apoptosis within individual lesions. WY-14,643 (group III) treatment increased the DNA synthetic labeling index in all foci. Co-treatment of rotenone and WY-14,643 (group IV) decreased focal DNA synthesis and mitosis and increased the incidence of apoptotic hepatocytes. These data suggest that rotenone’s ability to inhibit WY-14,643-induced hepatic focal lesion growth was mediated through a decrease in hepatic focal proliferation and an increase in focal apoptosis

Bachowski S, Kolaja KL, Xu Y, Ketcham CA, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Role of oxidative stress in the mechanism of dieldrin’s hepatotoxicity. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1997 May-Jun;27(3):196-209. PMID: 9142372.

Abstract. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by toxic chemicals has been implicated in acute and chronic disease states, including cancer. This increase in cellular ROS can lead to a state of oxidative stress. Many compounds selectively induce hepatic tumors in mice but not rats. The mechanism for the induction of hepatic cancer by these compounds and the observed species selectivity of this effect are not known but may be related to the induction of oxidative stress. Dieldrin is one such compound and is used in the present study to characterize the relationship between oxidative stress and the observed selective hepatotoxicity of dieldrin in mice. It was found that dieldrin induced oxidative stress in the mouse but not the rat, and the observed oxidative stress correlated with the induction of DNA S-phase synthesis. This evidence suggests that the induction of oxidative stress may be a mechanism by which dieldrin and other mouse specific compounds selectively induce their hepatic toxic effects in mice.

Kolaja KL, Klaunig JE. Vitamin E modulation of hepatic focal lesion growth in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Apr;143(2):380-7. PMID: 9144454.

Abstract. The effect of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) on hepatic focal lesion growth in male B6C3F1 mice previously treated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. After hepatic focal lesions were formed, mice were placed into one of the following dose groups: 0 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet, 50 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet (control diet), 250 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet, and 450 mg vitamin E/kg NIH-07 diet. Mice were euthanized after either 30 or 60 days of dietary treatment. In normal (nonlesion) liver, vitamin E deficiency (0 mg/kg diet) increased hepatic DNA synthesis. In addition, vitamin E supplementation (450 mg/kg diet) decreased the incidence of hepatic apoptosis, while vitamin E deficiency (0 mg/kg diet) increased the incidence of hepatic apoptosis. The effect of vitamin E-induced lesion growth was examined by measuring the number of focal lesions per liver and the relative focal lesion volume. High-dose vitamin E supplementation (450 mg/kg diet) appeared to enhance the growth of hepatic focal lesions. In particular, basophilic lesions appeared to be the most sensitive to high-dose vitamin E modulation (450 mg/kg diet) as evidenced by increased number, volume, and labeling index of hepatic focal lesions. Vitamin E deficiency also appeared to enhance the growth of hepatic focal lesions, though to a lesser extent than vitamin E supplementation (450 mg/kg diet). In the present study, both vitamin E supplementation (450 mg/kg diet) and deficiency (0 mg/kg diet) appeared to enhance focal lesion growth albeit neither treatment enhanced lesion growth as dramatically as known nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens (e.g., phenobarbital and dieldrin). The data presented here suggest that oxidative stress in focal hepatocytes may be a component of the liver tumor promotion process.

Isfort, R.J., Cody, D.B., Doersen, C, Richards, W.G., Yoder, B.K., Wilkinson, J.E., Kier, L.D., Jirtle, R.L, Isenberg, J.S., Klaunig, J.E., Woychik, R.P. (1997). The Tetratricopeptide Repeat Containing Tg737 Gene is Liver Neoplasis Tumor Suppressor Gene. Oncogene, 15, 1797-1803. PMID: 9362446

Abstract. The Tg737 gene was investigated for gross alterations in a series of rodent/human liver tumors and human tumorigenic cell lines. The Tg737 gene was found to be altered in approximately 40% of the rodent chemically-induced liver tumors, 40% of the human liver tumors, and in liver, kidney and pancreatic human tumor cell lines. Ectopic re-expression of the Tg737 gene in aTg737 deleted mouse liver tumor cell line resulted in suppression of tumorigenic growth, without altering in vitro cell culture growth. Treatment of mice which are either homozygous normal or heterozygous deleted at the Tg737 locus with the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine resulted in an increase in preneoplastic foci formation in the Tg737 heterozygous deleted mice. Ectopic expression of the Tg737 gene results in multinucleated cells, loss of Tg737 gene expression results in the proliferation of liver stem cells (oval cells) without concomitant differentiation, and reexpression of the Tg737 gene reestablished responsiveness to external differentiation factors. We believe this is the first report demonstrating tumor suppression activity for a tetratricopeptide repeat gene family member and provides insights into the function of this family of genes in mammalian cells

Klaunig, J.E., Xu, Y., Bachowski, S., Jiang, J. (1997). Free-Radical Oxygen-Induced Changes in Chemical Carcinogenesis. In K.B. Wallace (Ed.), Free Radical Toxicology (pp. 375-400). Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis.

Whitford, F., Fuhremann, T., Rao, K.S., Arce, G., Klaunig, J.E. (1997). Pesticide Toxicology: Evaluating Safety and Risk. Purdue Pesticide Program, Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.

1996

Steinmetz KL, Klaunig JE. Transforming growth factor-alpha in carcinogen-induced F344 rat hepatic foci. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Sep;140(1):131-45. PMID: 8806879.

Abstract. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) is a positive growth regulator in epithelial cells, including hepatocytes. Overexpression of TGF alpha has been associated with increased growth and malignancy of end-stage cancers in humans and rodents. The overall aim of this study was to characterize TGF alpha staining in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic foci from male F344 rats with the hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) histological phenotype. The association between the individual focal DNA synthesis labeling index and the presence of TGF alpha was also examined. Hepatic foci were identified as eosinophilic, basophilic, clear cell, or mixed cell. Of these foci, 37.5% labeled positive for TGF alpha. There were distinct differences in the pattern of TGF alpha labeling between the different H and E histological phenotypes. Intense, uniform TGF alpha labeling was observed in eosinophilic foci. Basophilic foci labeled for TGF alpha diffusely uniform throughout the cytoplasm. In clear-cell foci, TGF alpha labeling occurred primarily along the periphery of the cell membrane. In mixed-cell foci, labeling occurred both along the periphery and diffusely throughout the cytoplasm. On those slides stained, glutathione-S-transferase (placental; GSTP) was detected in almost all eosinophilic and mixed-cell foci, whereas approximately half of the basophilic and clear-cell foci stained for GSTP. The presence of GSTP in a focus was not always associated with the presence of increased TGF alpha protein. All rat hepatic adenomas and the one carcinoma labeled positive for TGF alpha. Increased levels of TGF alpha protein were associated with increased DNA synthesis labeling index. The number of TGF alpha-positive foci with the highest DNA synthesis labeling indices were statistically higher than those with lower levels of DNA synthesis labeling. Although characteristic staining patterns for TGF alpha were associated with specific histological subtype, the role that TGF alpha plays in the progression of focal lesions to neoplasia requires further definition. High levels of TGF alpha protein appear to be acquired sometime during the hepatocarcinogenic process. It may be that early lesions that acquire high levels of TGF alpha are the ones to develop into hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma is determined very early in the carcinogenic process). It is apparent that further work is needed to delineate the role of TGF alpha in both rodent and human hepatocarcinogenesis.

Kolaja KL, Bunting KA, Klaunig JE. Inhibition of tumor promotion and hepatocellular growth by dietary restriction in mice. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Aug;17(8):1657-64. PMID: 8761422.

Abstract. The effects of dietary restriction on the growth of hepatic focal lesions in phenobarbital (PB) promoted mice were examined. Dietary restriction which can inhibit many age-related diseases in rodents including hepatic cancer also decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in the liver. In contrast, PB, a non-genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogen, enhances the growth of hepatic focal lesions in mice and rats by increasing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. The present study examined the impact of dietary restriction on PB-induced hepatic tumor promotion. Focal lesions were produced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) treatment (35 mg DEN/kg body weight injections, twice per week for 8 weeks). After lesions were produced, mice were placed into one of the following four groups: NIH-07 control diet/no PB (group 1); NIH-07 diet/500 mg PB per liter of drinking water (group 2); dietary restricted NIH-07 diet/no PB (group 3); and dietary restricted NIH-7 diet/ 500 mg PB per liter of drinking water (group 4). In this study, PB (500 mg/l) treatment to ad libitum-fed mice (group 2) enhanced focal lesion volume, number, and labeling index compared with group 1. In addition, PB treatment (group 2) inhibited apoptosis in normal and focal hepatocytes compared with untreated control mice (group 1). In contrast, in dietary restricted mice treated with PB (group 4) a significantly lower focal lesion volume, number and labeling index were seen compared with the ad libitum-fed/PB treatment group (group 2). PB treatment in dietary restricted mice (group 4) did not inhibit focal apoptosis, in fact, the incidence of focal apoptosis was increased in these mice compared with ad libitum and PB-treated mice (group 2). In dietary restricted mice treated with PB (group 4), the ability of PB to promote the growth of preneoplastic focal lesions was inhibited. These results show that dietary restriction can ablate the tumor promotional effects of PB in hepatic focal lesions and suggest that inhibition of focal lesion DNA synthesis and enhancement of apoptosis may be a mechanism for this effect

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Reversibility of promoter induced hepatic focal lesion growth in mice. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Jul;17(7):1403-9. PMID: 8706241.

Abstract. The effect of cessation of phenobarbital and dieldren treatment on hepatic focal lesion growth in male B6C3F1 mice was investigated. Following induction of lesions by diethylnitrosamine, mice were placed on control NIH-07 diet (control diet) or NIH-07 diet containing either dieldrin (10.0 mg/kg diet) or phenobarbital (500 mg/kg diet). Mice were sacrificed after 30 and 60 days of dietary treatment. Two additional groups of mice were fed either the dieldren- or phenobarbital-containing diet for 30 days followed by feeding of NIH-07-only diet for an additional 30 days. The effect of treatment and removal of dieldrin or phenobarbital on lesion growth was examined by measuring both the number of focal lesions per liver and the relative volume of focal lesions. In addition, the rate of cell proliferation and programmed cell death in focal lesion growth was investigated by examining DNA synthesis and apoptosis in the focal lesions. Dietary dieldrin or phenobarbital increased the number of focal lesions and the focal lesion volume. In both dieldrin- and phenobarbital-treated mice, an increased number of eosinophilic lesions were seen. The focal lesion volume was increased in both eosinophilic and basophilic lesions. Dieldrin and phenobarbital treatment also increased the DNA synthetic labeling index in both eosinophilic and basophilic lesions. Removal of dieldrin or phenobarbital from the diet after 30 days of promoter treatment decreased the total number and volume of hepatic focal lesions. The labeling index of the focal lesions was also decreased in these mice. At the terminal sacrifice, the percentage of apoptotic cells in focal lesions was higher in mice fed dieldrin- or phenobarbital-containing diets for the entire 60 days than in mice returned to control diet for the last 30 days. Eosinophilic lesions were more dependent on the presence of a promoting stimulus than the basophilic lesions. These data indicate that induction and maintenance of the growth of some preneoplastic lesions in the mouse may be dependent upon continuous tumor promoter treatment

Sargent L, Dragan YP, Babcock K, Wiley J, Klaunig J, Pitot HC. Cytogenetic analysis of three rat liver epithelial cell lines (WBneo, WBHa-ras, and WBrasIIa) and correlation of an early chromosomal alteration with insulin-like growth factor II expression. Cancer Res. 1996 Jul 1;56(13):2992-7. PMID: 8674053.

Abstract. Cytogenetic changes that occur during the progression of rat hepatocarcinogenesis were assessed with three rat liver epithelial cell lines derived from WB cells. Previously characterized WBneo, WBras, and WBrasIIa cells were grown in culture and analyzed for structural and numerical chromosomal integrity by banded karyotype analysis. The WBneo cells had a low level of aneuploidy with a consistent loss of the Y chromosome by passage 7. The ras-transfected cell line selected for growth in soft agar, WBras, had acquired a loss of chromosome 3 (12%) or 3p (34%), a trisomy of chromosome 1, as well as the chromosome Y loss. The cell line produced from tumors generated by injection of the WBras cells into a syngeneic F344 rat, WBrasIIa, contained additional chromosomal changes. The WBrasIIa line comprised cells retaining a trisomy of chromosome 1 (55%) and cells with two copies of chromosome 1, with a minimal duplication of 1q3.7 to 1q4.3 (45%). This tumor-derived cell line contained, in addition, a higher percentage of cells with a loss of all or part of chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the possible presence of tumor suppressor genes in this region. The smallest region of duplication of chromosome 1 was bands 1q3.7-4.3. The insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) gene is located within the region of duplication on chromosome 1. Because IGF-II is both a rat liver mitogen and an inhibitor of apoptosis, its expression was examined in these three rat liver epithelial cell lines. Northern blot analysis demonstrated an increase in IGF-II mRNA expression in the WBras and WBrasIIa cell lines relative to the WBneo control cell line. Several IGF-II transcripts analogous to those detected in fetal rat liver were observed. An additional IGF-II transcript that migrates above the 28S ribosomal marker was also observed. These results were confirmed at the protein level by immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. This increased expression of IGF-II may confer a selective growth advantage to rat liver epithelial cells with a duplication of 1q3.7-4.3. This growth advantage may be enhanced by the further sequential loss of putative tumor suppressor genes on chromosomes 3 and 6

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Selective dieldrin promotion of hepatic focal lesions in mice. Carcinogenesis. 1996 Jun;17(6):1243-50. PMID: 8681438.

Abstract. Chronic exposure to a number of chlorinated pesticides, including dieldrin, results in an increased incidence and/or multiplicity of hepatocellular neoplasia in mice, with no such effect in similarly treated rats. One possible explanation of this observed selective carcinogenicity is species-specific hepatic tumor promotion. In the present study we examined the dose-response effect of dieldrin (at several doses) on focal lesion growth (tumor promotion), hepatocyte apoptosis and DNA synthesis in rat and mouse liver. Preneoplastic focal hepatic lesions were produced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). After the lesions developed, mice and rats were placed into one of the following dose groups: control (NIH-07 diet) or 0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 mg dieldrin/kg diet. Increased focal lesion volume, number of foci per liver and focal DNA synthetic labeling index were observed in 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet-treated mice, but not in similarly treated rats. Dieldrin at dietary concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg diet produced an increase in the number of preneoplastic lesions (0.1 mg/kg diet at 7 days only) and focal volume (0.1 mg/kg diet at 7 and 30 days, 1.0 mg/kg diet at 30 days), but these concentrations did not increase focal DNA labeling index. At dietary concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg dieldrin/kg diet no significant change in lesion percent volume, number of preneoplastic lesions per liver or preneoplastic lesion DNA labeling index was seen in treated rats compared with control rats. Apoptosis, a form of programed cell death, was not decreased in foci by any concentration of dieldrin in either rats or mice. Thus our results suggest that dieldrin may function as a mouse-specific tumor promoter through increased lesion DNA synthesis

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Dose dependence of phenobarbital promotion of preneoplastic hepatic lesions in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice: effects on DNA synthesis and apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 1996 May;17(5):947-54. PMID: 8640942.

Abstract. Phenobarbital (PB), a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rodents, has been studied extensively but its mechanism of carcinogenic action is unclear. PB appears to function as a tumor promoter by selectively inducing the growth of preneoplastic hepatocytes. In the present study, the comparative effects of PB at tumor-promoting and non-promoting doses were examined in male B6C3F1 mice and male F344 rats. In addition, the mechanism by which PB produced the selective induction of preneoplastic cell growth (increased DNA synthesis/cell proliferation and/or decreased apoptosis) was investigated. Preneoplastic focal lesions were produced using diethylnitrosamine (DEN). After the lesions were histologically apparent, mice and rats were fed PB (10, 100, or 500 mg/kg NIH-07 diet) or control diet and sampled after 7, 30 and 60 days of treatment In both mice and rats, 100 and 500 mg PB/kg increased the number and the relative volume of focal lesions. In rats and mice, 10 mg PB/kg did not enhance focal lesion growth. The preneoplastic lesions that clonally expanded due to phenobarbital treatment were predominantly eosinophilic in appearance. In addition, DNA synthesis in focal hepatocytes was significantly increased in the 100 and 500 mg PB/kg diet. In PB-treated mice and rats, there also was a significant decrease in the rates of apoptosis in focal hepatocytes. Therefore, our data showed that PB at doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg diet promoted focal hepatic lesion growth both by increasing DNA synthesis and cell proliferation and by decreasing the rate of apoptosis

Cao J, Xu Y, Chen J, Klaunig JE. Chemopreventive effects of green and black tea on pulmonary and hepatic carcinogenesis. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996 Feb;29(2):244-50. PMID: 8742322.

Abstract. The chemopreventive effects of decaffeinated green and black tea treatment on liver and lung tumorigenesis were examined in carcinogen-treated mice. Male C3H mice were given decaffeinated green or decaffeinated black tea in their drinking water prior to, during, and after treatment with diethylnitrosamine (50 micrograms/kg bw, i.p., once per week for 8 weeks). After 40 weeks of tea treatment, mice were sampled and examined for pulmonary and hepatic tumors. Mice treated with both DENA and tea displayed a significant decrease in the mean number of lung and liver tumors compared to DENA-only treated animals. Mice that received 0.63 or 1.25% green tea or 1.25% black tea exhibited a reduction in liver tumor numbers of 54, 50, and 63%, respectively from that seen in the DENA-only treated mice. Tea treatment also significantly decreased the multiplicity of lung adenomas. Mice receiving DENA and either 0.63 or 1.25% green tea or 1.25% black tea showed a decrease in the mean number of lung tumors of 40, 46, and 34%, respectively, from DENA-only treated mice. While a possible association between the chemopreventive activity of tea on lung tumor response and the concentration of (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in the tea was suggested, no apparent relationship between EGCG concentration and liver tumor response was seen, however. These results show a dose-dependent chemoprevention of both lung and liver tumors by both black and green tea in diethylnitrosamine-treated C3H mice.

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Johnson JT, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Subchronic effects of dieldrin and phenobarbital on hepatic DNA synthesis in mice and rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1996 Feb;29(2):219-28. PMID: 8742319.

Abstract. Dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, has been shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in mice but not rats. Phenobarbital, in contrast, induces hepatic tumors in both mice and rats. Previous studies have shown that acute dietary exposure of rats or mice to either dieldrin or phenobarbital produces several liver changes, including centrilobular hypertrophy, induction of hepatic cytochrome P450, and increased liver weight. The present study examined the subchronic effect of dieldrin (0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0 mg dieldrin/kg diet) and phenobarbital (10, 50, 100, 500 mg phenobarbital/kg diet) on the induction of hepatic DNA synthesis and hepatocyte lethality in male B6C3F1 mice and male F344 rats. Eight-week-old animals were treated as above and evaluated for hepatic DNA synthesis after 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days of continual treatment to dieldrin or phenobarbital. Maximal induction of hepatic DNA synthesis in mice was seen at the 14-, 21-, and 28-day sampling times. In rats, no significant increase in hepatic DNA synthesis or hepatocyte lethality was observed at any dose of dieldrin investigated. Phenobarbital produced a significant increase in hepatic DNA synthesis in both rat and mouse liver following 7 days of treatment. The induction of DNA synthesis in rat liver was transient, with the labeling index returning to control levels by 14 days of treatment. In contrast, mice treated with phenobarbital showed a significant increase in hepatic DNA synthesis throughout the treatment. In both mice and rats, dieldrin and phenobarbital induced hepatic DNA synthesis selectively in the centrilobular region of the hepatic lobule. The lack of an increase in serum enzymes indicative of hepatic damage and the absence of liver histopathology in mice or rats fed dieldrin or phenobarbital indicate that the induction of DNA synthesis was not mediated by a cytolethal, compensatory hyperplastic response, suggesting a mitogenic mechanism. Therefore, the species-specific induction of hepatic DNA synthesis by either dieldrin or phenobarbital correlated with the previously observed species-specific induction of hepatic cancer by these two compounds.

1995

Klaunig JE, Xu Y, Bachowski S, Ketcham CA, Isenberg JS, Kolaja KL, Baker TK, Walborg EF Jr, Stevenson DE. Oxidative stress in nongenotoxic carcinogenesis. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Dec;82-83:683-91. PMID: 8597127.

Abstract. The induction of oxidative stress in the target tissue has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for nongenotoxic carcinogens. A variety of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens including peroxisome proliferators, organochlorines, barbiturates, and metals have been shown to produce an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver. Our group has examined the induction of oxidative stress by the organochlorine mouse hepatic carcinogen, dieldrin. Using a salicylate spin trap assay, dieldrin was found to produce mouse liver-specific increases in ROS in cultured hepatocytes. Increased amounts of hepatic 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased levels of cellular antioxidants were also seen in cultured mouse hepatocytes following dieldrin treatment. In subchronically dieldrin-treated mice and rats, hepatic vitamin E (Vit E) was decreased correlated with dieldrin dose. While Vit E levels were decreased in both rats and mice, the normal lower levels of Vit E in the mouse resulted in a subsequent oxidative stress, evidenced by an increase in MDA formation in the mouse liver. Dieldrin also produced a dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis in the mouse (not the rat) following subchronic treatment. These effects seen in both cells in culture and in vivo were species specific, organ specific, and dose dependent which directly correlated with the observed pattern of cancer induction for dieldrin in rodents (mouse liver-specific). These findings support a possible role for the induction of oxidative stress in nongenotoxic hepatic carcinogenesis possibly through modulation of gene expression.

Baker TK, Kwiatkowski AP, Madhukar BV, Klaunig JE. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in rat hepatocytes. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Oct;16(10):2321-6. PMID: 7586129.

Abstract. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent rodent hepatic tumor promoter. Unlike observations with the majority of tumor promoting chemicals studied to date, most investigations have failed to demonstrate down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cultured cells by TCDD. The present study examined the effect of TCDD on GJIC in rat hepatocytes in primary culture. At non-cytolethal doses TCDD inhibited GJIC in a time- (1, 4, 24 and 48 h) and concentration (1 x 10(-8) – 1 x 10(-14) M)-dependent manner. This inhibition occurred within 4 h of treatment at doses of 1 x 10(-8) – 1 x 10(-12) M TCDD and persisted for up to 48 h, despite removal of TCDD. Treatment of rat hepatocytes with TCDD resulted in a decrease in hepatocyte connexin 32 mRNA, but had no apparent effect on connexin 26 mRNA. Co-incubation of rat hepatocytes with TCDD and alpha-napthoflavone abolished down-regulation of GJIC by TCDD. Similarly, co-treatment with a cAMP analog (8-bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate) prevented down-regulation of GJIC by TCDD. The results of this investigation demonstrated, for the first time, that TCDD inhibits GJIC in the in vivo target of its tumor promoting effect and that this effect may, in part, be mediated through the Ah receptor. In addition, this study showed that inhibition of GJIC by TCDD may be due to transcriptional down-regulation or stability of the connexin 32 gap junction mRNA.

Jou YS, Layhe B, Matesic DF, Chang CC, de Feijter AW, Lockwood L, Welsch CW, Klaunig JE, Trosko JE. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication and malignant transformation of rat liver epithelial cells by neu oncogene. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Feb;16(2):311-7. PMID: 7859363.

Abstract. A retrovirus containing a neu oncogene was introduced into a Fischer F344 rat liver epithelial cell line (WB-F344) to study the effect of the expression of neu oncoprotein on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), the ability to form colonies in soft agar and the ability to form tumors in rat liver by these cells. After viral infection, five different neu-transduced epithelial clones were randomly selected for further analysis. Southern blot analysis of HindIII-digested genomic DNA hybridized with a neu-specific probe indicated that the neu oncogene carried by the retrovirus was integrated into different chromosomal locations in the five different neu-transduced WB cell lines. Using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assay, we found that GJIC was significantly reduced in neu-transduced WB clones, compared with control virus-infected and parental WB cells. Western blot analysis of connexin 43 in the neu-transduced cell lines showed altered phosphorylation patterns compared with the normal WB-rat liver cell line. Confocal image analysis of the neu-transduced cells showed that the connexin 43 protein, as detected by fluorescent immunostaining, was localized in the cell nucleus. The neu-transduced WB cell lines also acquired the ability to grow in soft agar. Furthermore, cells from three of the five neu-transduced cell lines, when injected into the liver of Fischer F344 rats through the portal vein, were highly tumorigenic (multiple focal hepatic tumors developed within 2 weeks). Cells derived from the tumor were shown to be G-418 resistant, demonstrating that the tumor was derived from the injected WB-neu cells. The results of this study demonstrate that the expression of the neu oncogene is able to block GJIC and to induce tumorigenicity in the rat liver WB-F344 cell line.

Siglin JC, Weghorst CM, Rodwell DE, Klaunig JE. Gender-dependent differences in hepatic tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine initiated infant B6C3F1 mice by  alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1995 Feb;44(2):235-45. PMID: 7531777.

Abstract. Chronic exposure of B6C3F1 mice to phenobarbital (PB), subsequent to a single initiating dose of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) at 15 d of age, has been previously shown to inhibit hepatic tumorigenesis in male mice, while promoting hepatic tumor formation in female mice (Weghorst & Klaunig, 1989). In the present study, the effects of another hepatic tumor promoter, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), in similarly initiated B6C3F1 mice was investigated. Male and female mice received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of either DENA or saline at 15 d of age. Beginning at 28 d of age, the mice received either alpha-HCH in the diet (250 ppm) or untreated basal diet. Like PB, alpha-HCH inhibited hepatic tumorigenesis in male mice, while promoting hepatic tumor formation in female mice following chronic exposure. In an additional experiment, already formed preneoplastic hepatic foci in male and female B6C3F1 mice were examined for their responsiveness to the induction of DNA synthesis by alpha-HCH treatment. The mice received a single ip injection of DENA at 15 d of age to induce hepatocellular foci. Beginning at 24 wk of age, mice received either basal diet or diet containing 250 ppm alpha-HCH for 7 consecutive d. DNA synthesis was assessed by continuous [3H]thymidine infusion via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. In female mice treated with alpha-HCH, DNA synthesis in hepatocellular foci was increased substantially compared to untreated females. In contrast, male mice receiving alpha-HCH showed no increase in DNA synthesis in hepatocellular foci from that seen in non-alpha-HCH-treated males. Based on these results, we postulate that the gender-dependent differences in hepatic tumorigenesis observed in B6C3F1 mice initiated during infancy may be related to chemical tumor promoter modulation of the normal hormonal environment, or to differences in the ability of hepatocellular foci to respond to the induction of DNA synthesis by the tumor promoter.

Baker TK, Bachowski S, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication in rodent, monkey and human hepatocyte by nongenotoxic compounds. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;391:71-80. PMID: 8532738.

Abstract.

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. The effect of dieldrin and phenobarbital on preneoplastic hepatic lesion growth in male F344 rat and B6C3F1 mouse. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;391:409-23. PMID: 8532733.

Abstract.

Kolaja KL, Stevenson DE, Johnson JT, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Hepatic effects of dieldrin and phenobarbital in male B6C3F1 mice and Fisher 344 rats: species selective induction of DNA synthesis. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;391:397-408. PMID: 8532732.

Abstract.

Bachowski S, Xu Y, Baker TK, Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. The potential role of oxidative stress in nongenotoxic carcinogenesis in the mouse liver. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;391:385-96. Review. PMID: 8532730.

Abstract.

Stevenson DE, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. The species specificity of dieldrin- or phenobarbital- induced hepatocarcinogenesis: case studies with implications for human health risk assessment. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995;391:337-45. PMID: 8532726.

Abstract.

Stevenson DE, Kehrer JP, Kolaja KL, Walborg EF Jr, Klaunig JE. Effect of dietary antioxidants on dieldrin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Jan;75(1-3):177-83. PMID: 7863524.

Abstract. An increasing number of reports suggest that oxidative stress plays a role in the toxicity of various xenobiotics, including organochlorine pesticides and drugs such as phenobarbital. Antioxidants appear to be protective against the damage induced by an acute dose of endrin, supporting the theory of a role for reactive oxygen in the toxicity of this class of compounds. The current study examined the effects of the dietary administration of vitamin C (400 mg/kg diet) or vitamin E (200 mg DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg diet) on hepatotoxicity induced by subchronic (7 or 28 days) feeding of dieldrin (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg diet) to male B6C3F1 mice. Hepatoxicity induced by feeding of dieldrin for 28 days was evidenced by liver enlargement, hypertrophy of centrolobular hepatocytes, induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, and increased DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, particularly in centrolobular hepatocytes. Neither vitamin inhibited the dose-dependent increase in liver/body weight ratios, hypertrophy of centrolobular hepatocytes, or induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. Vitamin E, however, inhibited hepatic DNA synthesis at all dietary intakes of dieldrin, while vitamin C was inhibitory at 1 and 3, but stimulatory at 10 mg dieldrin per kg diet. The major changes in DNA labeling occurred in the centrolobular zones, but were not consistently inhibited by vitamins C or E. The ability of antioxidant vitamins to inhibit dieldrin-induced hepatic DNA synthesis suggests oxidative stress is involved in the toxicity of this compound; however, the inability of these vitamins to prevent all hepatotoxic changes indicates other factors are also involved

1994

Mehendale HM, Roth RA, Gandolfi AJ, Klaunig JE, Lemasters JJ, Curtis LR. Novel mechanisms in chemically induced hepatotoxicity. FASEB J. 1994 Dec;8(15):1285-95. PMID: 8001741.

Abstract. This review focuses on cellular events that modulate hepatotoxicity subsequent to initial liver insult. Cellular events that determine the nature and extent of hepatotoxic injury and the ultimate outcome of that injury are also discussed. The roles of cell types other than hepatocytes, hepatocyte organelle-specific processes, and regeneration in progression or recovery from liver injury are emphasized. Leukocyte activities are key events in two distinct hepatotoxicities. Neutrophil-mediated, periportal inflammation appears to play a primary role in progression of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced cholangiolitic hepatitis. However, a humorally mediated autoimmune response to protein adducts that occurs after anesthesia is critical in onset of halothane-induced hepatitis. New insights into specific events at the hepatocyte level are also emerging. Although reducing gap junctional communication between hepatocytes can protect against progression of liver injury, down-regulation of the subunit proteins (connexins) can isolate neoplastic cells from growth regulation. Acidic intracellular pH characteristic of hypoxia is protective against both hypoxic and toxicant-induced cell injury. In oxidative injury, a pH-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition causes mitochondrial uncoupling and ATP loss and leads to cell death. The ultimate outcome of hepatotoxic injury depends on the extent of tissue repair. Stimulation of tissue repair after a sublethal dose of CCl4 appears to be the central mechanism in protection against death from a subsequent large dose. Taken together, these examples illustrate the importance of events subsequent to initial liver injury as determinants of extent of liver damage

Kwiatkowski AP, Baker TK, Klaunig JE. Comparison of glucocorticoid-mediated changes in the expression and function of rat hepatocyte gap junctional proteins. Carcinogenesis. 1994 Aug;15(8):1753-7. PMID: 8055659.

Abstract. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is often modulated by chemical carcinogens and during carcinogenesis, in part, through changes in gap junction mRNA levels. However, the mechanisms by which gap junction mRNA levels are altered in either normal or cancer cells are largely unknown. Since glucocorticoids are potent modulators of gene expression and stability, we have investigated the effects of these hormones on GJIC and gap junction mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes cultured in three different media. Addition of dexamethasone to cultures of rat hepatocytes resulted in a maintenance of GJIC and both major liver gap junctional mRNAs, connexin (Cx)26 and Cx32, at levels above those in hepatocytes cultured in glucocorticoid-free media. In addition, hepatocytes cultured without dexamethasone for 24 h could be induced to communicate and increase Cx mRNA levels by the addition of dexamethasone to their medium. These media-independent changes in GJIC and gap junction mRNA levels by dexamethasone warrant further investigations into their mechanisms of action and the potential therapeutic value of glucocorticoids in the treatment of cancer.

Klaunig, J.E., Baker, T.K. (1994). Morphological Evaluation of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication. In Methods in Toxicology (Vol. 1B) (pp. 72-80). San Diego: Academic Press.

1993

Klaunig JE. Selective induction of DNA synthesis in mouse preneoplastic and neoplastic hepatic lesions after exposure to phenobarbital. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Dec;101 Suppl 5:235-9. PMID: 8013413.

Abstract. Recent evidence has suggested that the induction of DNA synthesis by nongenotoxic chemical carcinogens plays an important role in the formation of cancer. The present study examined the effect of a nongenotoxic carcinogen, phenobarbital, (PB) on the induction of DNA synthesis in preneoplastic foci and adenomas in B6C3F1 mice. Male mice were treated with diethylnitrosamine at 30 days of age. After 6 months, mice had both hepatic foci and adenomas. Mice were divided into three groups at random and treated with PB in the drinking water and examined for DNA labeling by autoradiography. Before sacrifice, each mouse received an osmotic minipump containing [3H] thymidine. Results showed a PB dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis in hepatic foci. Adenomas were unresponsive to the DNA synthesis-enhancing effect of PB, maintaining a level of 20-25%. The normal surrounding liver showed an increase in DNA synthesis (10-15% labeling index) at the 7-day sampling, which returned to normal control levels by 28 and 45 days. The foci showed a heterogeneity in response, with some foci showing an increase (20-30% labeling index), and others maintaining control DNA synthesis levels (4-6% labeling index). These results show that preneoplastic foci in the mouse respond preferentially to the induction of DNA synthesis by PB, that this response is dose dependent, and that it is maintained as long as the treatment continues

Ruch RJ, Madhukar BV, Trosko JE, Klaunig JE. Reversal of ras-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication, transformation, and tumorigenesis by lovastatin. Mol Carcinog. 1993;7(1):50-9. PMID: 8435109.

Abstract. The plasma-membrane association and transforming activity of the ras oncoprotein p21 are dependent upon posttranslational farnesylation. Farnesyl synthesis and p21 ras farnesylation are inhibited by hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors such as lovastatin. In this study, we examined whether lovastatin could reverse the transformed phenotype of a v-Ha-ras-transformed rat liver epithelial cell line (WB-ras cells) and if changes were associated with the enhancement of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). WB-ras cells grow in soft agar, have reduced GJIC, and are highly tumorigenic. Membrane association of p21 ras in these cells was inhibited after in vitro treatment with lovastatin (0.1-0.5 microM) for 48 h. Concomitantly, the cells displayed a more normal morphology, decreased growth in soft agar, and enhanced GJIC. These changes were prevented by cotreatment with mevalonic acid. The morphology and GJIC of rat liver epithelial cells transformed with other oncogenes (src, neu, and raf/myc) were not affected by lovastatin. Intrahepatic WB-ras tumors were induced in male rats by intraportal-vein injection of WB-ras cells. The size and DNA labeling index of these tumors were decreased approximately 75% by administration of lovastatin (5 mg/kg orally twice daily for 2 wk). These results suggest that lovastatin reversed the transformed phenotype of WB-ras cells by inhibiting p21 ras plasma membrane association. Furthermore, the concomitant enhancement of GJIC in lovastatin-treated cells suggests a role for reduced GJIC in the expression of the transformed phenotype.

1992

Klaunig JE. Chemopreventive effects of green tea components on hepatic carcinogenesis. Prev Med. 1992 Jul;21(4):510-9. PMID: 1409492.

Abstract. Catechin components of green tea have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties possible related to their antioxidant activity. In the present study, a catechin containing green tea extract (GTE) was examined for its effect on three previously defined properties of liver tumor promoters, induction of cytolethality, inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication, and induction of cell proliferation. Hepatocytes from male B6C3F1 mice were isolated and placed in primary culture. The effects of GTE of oxygen free radical-induced cytolethality was examined by coincubating GTE with the oxygen radical generating compounds paraquat, glucose oxidase (GO), and xanthine oxidase (XO). GTE prevented the induction of hepatocyte cytolethality by GO, XO, and paraquat in a dose-responsive manner. Similarly, GTE prevented the inhibition of gap junctional-mediated intercellular communication (measured by lucifer yellow dye coupling) by phenobarbital, lindane, and paraquat in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of GTE on hepatocyte DNA synthesis was examined in male mice containing preneoplastic liver lesions induced by diethylnitrosamine. GTE significantly decreased the labeling index in hepatic preneoplastic foci from animals treated with phenobarbital for 7 days. These studies suggest that the previous reported anticarcinogenic activity of green tea may be related to its effect on the tumor promotion stage of the cancer process.

Ruch, R.J., Klaunig, J.E. (1992). Enhancement of Rodent Hepatocyte Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication by Dexamethasone. In Vitro Toxicology, 5(2), 103-111.

1991

Klaunig JE. Alterations in intercellular communication during the stage of promotion. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1991 Nov;198(2):688-92. PMID: 1924405.

Abstract. The promotion stage is a crucial step in the process of carcinogenesis. During this stage, the initiated cell population is clonally expanded to morphologically discriminable forms. Exogenous or endogenous agents that influence this clonal expansion have tumor-promoting activity. Inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication is one of a number of cellular changes seen in cells after exposure to promoting agents. GJIC can be inhibited through either modification of intracellular control mechanism or through transcriptional or translational down-expression of the gap junction protein. Through either mechanism, the net effect is a decrease in GJIC by tumor promoters. This decrease in GJIC, while occurring in normal cells and preneoplastic cells alike, appears to be more efficacious in the preneoplastic cells, and appears to prevent GJIC between the preneoplastic cells and the normal surrounding hepatocytes. This isolation of the preneoplastic cells by hepatic tumor promoters from the normal surrounding hepatocytes may separate the preneoplastic cells from growth regulatory control of the normal liver, thus allowing the preneoplastic cells to clonally expand by cell proliferation. Whether the disruption of GJIC and down-regulation of gap junction protein expression seen in hepatic foci by exposure to tumor promoters are causes or effects of the resulting cell proliferation remains to be determined. Certainly, the modification of GJIC and the expression of the gap junction protein by tumor promoters are important cellular changes that produce a phenotypically altered population of hepatocytes

Goodman JI, Ward JM, Popp JA, Klaunig JE, Fox TR. Mouse liver carcinogenesis: mechanisms and relevance. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1991 Nov;17(4):651-65. PMID: 1685715.

Abstract.

Ruch RJ, Bandyopadhyay S, Somani P, Klaunig JE. Evaluation of amiodarone free radical toxicity in rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett. 1991 Apr;56(1-2):117-26. PMID: 2017769.

Abstract. The possible roles of free radicals and lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of toxicity of amiodarone (AD) [2-butyl-3-(3′,5′-diiodo-4′ alpha-diethylaminoethoxybenzoyl)benzofuran] and its principle metabolite, desethylamiodarone (DE), were examined in primary cultured Sprague-Dawley male rat hepatocytes. AD (20 and 40 micrograms/ml) and DE (10 and 25 micrograms/ml) killed hepatocytes in concentration- and time-dependent fashions. Several antioxidants [Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (200 U/ml), catalase (200 U/ml), N,N’-diphenylphenylenediamine (DPPD; 25 microM), butylated hydroxytoluene (0.1 mM), and N-acetylcysteine (5 mM)] were incapable of preventing AD and DE hepatocyte toxicity. Only vitamin E (VE, d,l-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 20-200 microM) prevented AD and DE toxicity. No correlation between the onset of hepatocyte death by AD and DE and hepatocyte lipid peroxidation was seen. Both drugs inhibited NADPH-dependent rat liver microsomal superoxide production. These results, excluding the preventive effects of VE, do not support a free radical/lipid peroxidation mechanism of hepatocyte toxicity by AD and DE. VE may have prevented hepatocyte toxicity through non-antioxidant effects.

Klaunig JE, Siglin JC, Schafer LD, Hartnett JA, Weghorst CM, Olson MJ, Hampton JA. Correlation between species and tissue sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis in rodents and the induction of DNA synthesis. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991;369:185-94. PMID: 1946517.

Abstract.

Siglin JC, Weghorst CM, Klaunig JE. Role of hepatocyte proliferation in alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and phenobarbital tumor promotion in B6C3F1 mice. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991;369:407-16. PMID: 1719565.

Abstract.

Klaunig, J.E., Siglin, J.C., Schafer, L.D., Hartnett, J.A., Weghorst, C.M., Olson, M.J., Hampton, J.A. (1991). Correlation between Species and Tissue Sensitivity to Chemical Carcinogenesis in Rodents and the Induction of DNA Synthesis. In Chemically Induced Cell Proliferation: Implications for Risk Assessment (pp. 185-194), Wiley-Liss.

Siglin, J.C., Weghorst, C.M., Klaunig, J.E. (1991). Role of Hepatocyte Proliferation in α-Hexachlorocyclohexane and Phenobarbital Tumor Promotion in B6C3F1 Mice. In Chemically Induced Cell Proliferation: Implication for Risk Assessment (pp.407-416), Wiley-Liss.

1990

Xie ZJ, Wang YH, Askari A, Huang WH, Klaunig JE, Askari A. Studies on the specificity of the effects of oxygen metabolites on cardiac sodium pump. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1990 Aug;22(8):911-20. PMID: 2172559.

Abstract. Isolated myocytes of rat heart, and sealed sarcolemmal vesicles of bovine heart, were used to examine the selectivity of the effects of partially reduced oxygen species (generated by a mixture of xanthine and xanthine oxidase) on cardiac sodium pump and several other ion transporters of the plasma membrane. When myocytes were exposed to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase, there were time-dependent inhibitions of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity that could be prevented by allopurinol, or by catalase and superoxide dismutase; suggesting the involvements of H2O2 or oxygen free radicals in the inhibition of the pump. This inhibition preceded any significant decrease in cellular ATP or in the number of viable cells. While ouabain increased 45Ca2+ uptake by myocytes as expected, exposure to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase decreased 45Ca2+ uptake; suggesting that the Na+, Ca2(+)-exchanger of the intact myocytes is also inhibited by oxygen metabolites. Simultaneous inhibitions of the pump, the Na+, Ca2(+)-exchange, the Na+, H(+)-exchange, and the Na+, Pi-cotransport activities also occurred in sarcolemmal vesicles that were treated with xanthine plus xanthine oxidase. These findings indicate that inactivations of the sodium pump and other sarcolemmal ion carriers are early events in the oxidant-induced damage to the cardiomyocyte. In the rat heart myocytes, a fraction of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase that seems to be more sensitive to ouabain, was inactivated more rapidly upon exposure of myocytes to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase; raising the possibility of the existence of different pump populations with different sensitivities to extracellularly generated oxygen metabolites.

Bandyopadhyay S, Klaunig JE, Somani P. Cytotoxic interactions of cardioactive cationic amphiphilic compounds in primary rat hepatocytes in culture. Hepatology. 1990 Jul;12(1):48-58. PMID: 2373484.

Abstract. Hepatocytes from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by the two-stage collagenase perfusion technique; 1 x 10(6) cells/plate were incubated in primary cell culture in Leibovitz’s L-15 medium for 24 hr with or without various concentrations (12.5 to 400 mumol/L) of cardioactive cationic amphiphilic compounds such as propranolol, verapamil, sotalol, atenolol and procainamide. Propranolol and verapamil caused a significant release of lactate dehydrogenase (used as cytotoxic index in this study) in the culture media in a concentration-dependent manner, with LC50 values of 220 +/- 10 and 224 +/- 7 mumol/L, respectively. Atenolol, sotalol and procainamide had no effect on lactate dehydrogenase release. Electron microscopy of the hepatocytes showed that subtoxic concentrations of propranolol (12.5 to 125 mumol/L) and verapamil (12.5 to 100 mumol/L) induced multilamellar inclusion bodies after 24 hr of incubation. The two higher concentrations of propranolol (50 and 125 mumol/L) and 100 mumol/L of verapamil produced a significant decrease in the percentage of volume density of the mitochondria as quantitated by morphometrical analysis. An unusual feature of the electron microscopical changes with propranolol and verapamil was the presence of mitochondria within the multilamellar inclusion bodies. When these two drugs were used together or with subtoxic concentrations of amiodarone or desethylamiodarone, release of lactate dehydrogenase was significantly enhanced. No correlation was evident between the cytotoxic response and the volume density of cellular inclusions in hepatocytes treated with different concentrations of propranolol, verapamil, amiodarone or desethylamiodarone. Sotalol, atenolol and procainamide in concentrations up to 400 mumol/L did not produce any ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes after 24 hr of incubation. These results show that (a) cationic amphiphilic structure per se is not the only requirement for induction of multilamellar inclusions, (b) propranolol and verapamil can induce the formation of multilamellar inclusion bodies and cause a concentration-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase from hepatocytes and (c) combination of different cationic amphiphiles in subtoxic concentrations can enhance cytotoxicity and increase the volume density of multilamellar inclusions.

Ruch RJ, Fransson R, Flodstrom S, Warngard L, Klaunig JE. Inhibition of hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication by endosulfan, chlordane and heptachlor. Carcinogenesis. 1990 Jul;11(7):1097-101. PMID: 2372869.

Abstract. The cyclodiene pesticides endosulfan, chlordane and heptachlor have been reported to be non-genotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens. These three compounds and several metabolites of endosulfan (endosulfan sulfate, endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone) were examined for their effects on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in primary cultured male F344 rat hepatocytes and B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes. GJIC was evaluated by Lucifer Yellow CH dye-coupling. Endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate inhibited rat and mouse hepatocyte GJIC in a dose-responsive manner (50-200 microM) after 4 h treatment. Endosulfan ether inhibited rat hepatocyte GJIC only at 200 microM and had no effect on mouse hepatocytes. Endosulfan lactone did not affect rat or mouse hepatocyte GJIC. Chlordane and heptachlor inhibited both mouse and rat hepatocyte GJIC at concentrations of 50-200 microM. The inhibition of GJIC by the cyclodienes showed similar dose-response relationships and kinetics of onset of inhibition and reversibility for both mouse and rat hepatocytes. Concomitant treatment of the cells with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (SKF-525A, piperonyl butoxide or carbon monoxide) did not alter the inhibition of GJIC by the cyclodienes, suggesting that cytochrome P450 metabolism was not involved in the inhibitory mechanism. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.5 mM), however, decreased the inhibition of GJIC by the cyclodienes and may indicate that these compounds inhibit intercellular communication through a cAMP-dependent process. The inhibition of mouse and rat hepatocyte GJIC by the cyclodienes correlated with previous reports indicating that these compounds are non-genotoxic rodent liver carcinogens.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE, Kerckaert GA, LeBoeuf RA. Modification of gap junctional intercellular communication by changes in extracellular pH in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Carcinogenesis. 1990 Jun;11(6):909-13. PMID: 2347066.

Abstract. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of culture medium pH on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in early passage Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that SHE cells cultured at a clonal density at pH 6.70 are morphologically transformed by carcinogens at a significantly higher frequency than cells cultured in media of higher pH. Several other cell characteristics consistent with promotion-like effects are observed with pH 6.70 culture of SHE cells. It was postulated that the promotion-like effects observed in SHE cells cultured at acidic pH are mediated in part by a reduction of GJIC. In this study, we evaluated GJIC in SHE cells by fluorescent dye coupling. Results from this study indicate that GJIC decreased as a function of decreased extracellular pH. Cells cultured at pH 6.70, 7.15 or 7.35 exhibited 47, 75 and 85% coupled cells respectively. The decrease in dye coupling occurred by 24 h after switching the cells from pH 7.15 to 6.70 medium. The decreased GJIC observed at pH 6.70 was not due to changes in cell proliferation and was reversible within 24 h when pH 6.70 cultures were refed with pH 7.15 medium. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate inhibited SHE cell GJIC in a pH-dependent manner with cells at pH 6.70 exhibiting the greatest inhibition by TPA and cells at pH 7.35 being unresponsive. The effect of pH on GJIC in SHE cells is consistent with the pH-dependent response to chemically induced morphological transformation and may be mechanistically related to this phenomenon

Klaunig JE, Weghorst TR, Weghorst CM. Liver tumor promoting ability of corn  oil gavage in B6C3F1 male mice. Cancer Lett. 1990 Apr 30;50(3):215-9. PMID: 2322934.

Abstract. In chronic carcinogenic bioassays, chemicals being tested with low water solubility have been administered via corn oil gavage. The present study examined the effect of chronic corn oil gavage on hepatic tumor formation in the B6C3F1 male mouse. Mice were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) either at 15 days of age with a single i.p. injection (5 micrograms/gbw) (protocol 1) or at 4 weeks of age via the drinking water (15 mg/l) for a duration of 3 weeks (protocol 2). At weaning (protocol 1) or 8 weeks of age (protocol 2) initiated and untreated mice were administered either corn oil at a dose of 0.15 ml via gavage (once a day, 5 days/wk) or saline (0.15 ml via gavage, once a day 5 days/wk). All mice were killed at 28 weeks of age and hepatic lesions were quantitated. Only mice exposed to DENA demonstrated hepatic tumors. Mice treated with DENA (at 15 days of age) and corn oil gavage exhibited a significant decrease in the number of hepatic adenomas compared with DENA (at 15 days of age) only treated mice. No difference was noted in the number of hepatic adenomas between mice treated with DENA (at 4 wks of age) and corn oil gavage and mice exposed to DENA (at 4 wks of age) only.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, Weghorst CM. Comparative effects of phenobarbital, DDT, and lindane on mouse hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Mar 1;102(3):553-63. PMID: 1690460.

Abstract. Gap junctional intercellular communication appears to be important in the regulation of cellular homeostasis, differentiated cell functions, and growth control in adult tissues. Interruption of intercellular communication by chemical compounds has been shown to be a sublethal response to a number of tumor promoters. The mechanism by which tumor promoters inhibit intercellular communication remains unresolved. In the present study the kinetics of inhibition of mouse hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication (measured by dye coupling) by three well-established hepatic tumor promoters [phenobarbital, 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane)] are compared. All three compounds inhibited intercellular communication in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both freshly plated and 24-hr-old hepatocyte cultures. Following removal of the tumor promoters from the culture medium, intercellular communication was reestablished within 0.5 hr (phenobarbital) to 1.5 hr (DDT and lindane). Prolonged treatment of hepatocytes for up to 48 hr with the three promoters resulted in the continued inhibition of intercellular communication by lindane and DDT, but the development of refractoriness to phenobarbital-induced inhibition of intercellular communication. Concomitant treatment with combinations of the three promoters showed an additive effect of the compounds on inhibition of intercellular communication. Inhibition of intercellular communication by phenobarbital was prevented by addition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor SKF-525A. SKF-525A had no effect on the inhibition of intercellular communication induced by lindane or DDT. Coincubation of the three promoters with the cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP prevented the promoter-induced inhibition of intercellular communication.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ. Role of inhibition of intercellular communication in carcinogenesis. Lab Invest. 1990 Feb;62(2):135-46. PMID: 2406502.

Abstract.

Klaunig JE, Hartnett JA, Ruch RJ, Weghorst CM, Hampton JA, Schafer LD. Gap junctional intercellular communication in hepatic carcinogenesis. Prog Clin Biol  Res. 1990;340D:165-74. PMID: 2371293.

Abstract.

De Feijter AW, Ray JS, Weghorst CM, Klaunig JE, Goodman JI, Chang CC, Ruch RJ, Trosko JE. Infection of rat liver epithelial cells with v-Ha-ras: correlation between oncogene expression, gap junctional communication, and tumorigenicity. Mol Carcinog. 1990;3(2):54-67. PMID: 2346586.

Abstract. The role of v-Ha-ras oncogene in tumorigenesis in an in vitro/in vivo model system was studied by investigating the expression of the Ha-ras gene, gap junctional intercellular communication, and tumorigenicity as endpoints. Infection of a Fischer 344 rat liver epithelial cell line (WB 344) with a retrovirus containing the v-Ha-ras oncogene resulted in altered cell morphology and decreased contact sensitivity. Gap junctional intercellular communication in v-Ha-ras infected WB cells (WBHa-ras), assessed by fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching (FRAP), microinjection/dye transfer, and scrape-loading/dye transfer techniques, was markedly decreased compared with the level in control WB cells. Injection of 10(7) WBHa-ras cells into the portal vein of male F344 rats caused multiple focal hepatic lesions within 1 and 2 wk, merging to large invading tumors after 3 and 4 wk. Examination of the methylation pattern of the Ha-ras gene in WBHa-ras and control WB cells showed that the infected Ha-ras gene was relatively hypomethylated in comparison to the normal cellular Ha-ras gene, indicating a greater potential for expression. There was an increased level of Ha-ras mRNA in hepatomas as compared with both adjacent nontumor liver tissue and liver tissue obtained from normal animals. Three cell lines derived from three different primary hepatic tumors induced by an injection of WBHa-ras cells in a F344 rat displayed similar growth characteristics, levels of gap junctional communication, and methylation patterns as the original WBHa-ras cells. The results of these studies have established a strong positive correlation between expression of the Ha-ras oncogene, reduced gap junctional intercellular communication, decreased contact sensitivity, and tumorigenicity of the v-Ha-ras-infected rat liver epithelial cells.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, Hampton JA, Weghorst CM, Hartnett JA. Gap-junctional intercellular communication and murine hepatic carcinogenesis. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990;331:277-91. PMID: 2315344.

Abstract.

Somani P, Bandyopadhyay S, Klaunig JE, Gross SA. Amiodarone- and desethylamiodarone-induced myelinoid inclusion bodies and toxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes. Hepatology. 1990 Jan;11(1):81-92. PMID: 2153095.

Abstract. Hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of either amiodarone or desethylamiodarone for 0 to 96 hr. Both drugs produced a concentration-dependent increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in the culture medium, which correlated well with cell death as measured by trypan blue exclusion test. Desethylamiodarone was more toxic than amiodarone in the cultured hepatocytes. Incubation with subtoxic concentrations of either amiodarone (7.6 microM) or desethylamiodarone (8 microM) for 24 hr resulted in the development of myelinoid inclusion bodies in the hepatocytes without any excess release of lactate dehydrogenase. In experimental protocols where the hepatocytes were exposed to either amiodarone or desethylamiodarone for up to 96 hr, there was an increase in lactate dehydrogenase and the percent volume-density of multilamellar inclusion bodies with cumulative drug exposure with time. A linear correlation between hepatocyte drug concentration and multilamellar inclusion bodies was found for both amiodarone and desethylamiodarone. These results demonstrate that both amiodarone and its major metabolite, desethylamiodarone, induce lysosomal inclusions, which, under appropriate conditions, can be dissociated from cell death. Withdrawal of the drug after 24 hr exposure did not result in disappearance of the inclusion bodies from the hepatocytes for up to 96 hr of tissue culture. The concentrations at which amiodarone- or desethylamiodarone-induced electron microscopic changes and hepatotoxicity were only two to five times as high as the usual serum drug levels in patients given antiarrhythmic therapy with amiodarone.

Trosko JE, Chang CC, Madhukar BV, Klaunig JE. Chemical, oncogene and growth  factor inhibition gap junctional intercellular communication: an integrative hypothesis of carcinogenesis. Pathobiology. 1990;58(5):265-78. PMID: 2076190.

Abstract. Most, if not all, cancer cells have some dysfunction in gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication, either because of defects in cell adhesion or inability to have functional gap junctional communication. In addition, most, if not all, tumor-promoting chemicals and conditions down-regulate gap junction function, while some antitumor-promoting chemicals can up-regulate gap junctional communication. Several oncogenes are associated with down-regulation of gap junction function and several hormone and growth regulators, known to be tumor promoters, are also able to down-regulate gap junction function. On the other hand, some tumor suppressor genes have been linked to the up-regulation of gap junctions. Based on these observations, it is hypothesized that, if a progenitor cell is unable to perform gap junctional intercellular communication, normal growth control and cell differentiation would not be possible, thereby favoring the development of malignant neoplasia.

Nigrovic, V., Segal, F., Klaunig, J.E., Fry, K. (1990). The Site and Mechanism of the Cytotoxic Effect of Atracurium In Vitro. European Journal of Anesthesiology, 7, 123-131.

Klaunig, J.E., Ruch, R.J., Weghorst, C.M., Hampton, J.A. (1990). Role of Inhibition of Intercellular Communication in Hepatic Tumor Promotion. In Vitro Toxicology, 3 (1), 91-107.

Klaunig, J.E., Ruch, R.J. (1990). Role of Inhibition of Intercellular Communication in Carcinogenesis. In E. Rubin and I. Damjanov (Eds.), Pathology Reviews 1990 (pp. 205-216). Clifton: Humana Press.

1989

Lin EL, Klaunig JE, Mattox JK, Weghorst CM, McFarland BH, Pereira MA. Comparison of the effects of acute and subacute treatment of phenobarbital in different strains of mice. Cancer Lett. 1989 Nov 15;48(1):43-51. PMID: 2819695.

Abstract. A strain specificity has been demonstrated for the effect of subsequent administration of phenobarbital (PB), in which diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis was promoted in C3H mice, inhibited in B6C3F1 (C57BL x C3H) and not affected in C57BL mice. A correlation has been established between the ability of barbiturates and hydantoins to promote tumor formation and their ability to induce liver growth, hepatic DNA synthesis and mixed function oxidase activities. Therefore, we examined in these 3 strains of mice and in C3B6F1 (C3H x C57BL) mice the effect of PB administered in their drinking water for 4 days or 28 days. The liver weight to body weight ratio was increased by PB in all types of mice. Microsomal protein concentrations were increased in C57BL mice after 28 days of treatment, in C3H after both 4 days and 28 days and in B6C3F1 after 4 days of treatment. No effect upon microsomal protein content was observed in C3B6F1 mice. DNA content was increased in C3H mice, both in the 4-day and 28-day treatment groups, while the other strains showed either a decrease or no difference from control. DNA synthesis was elevated in all strains of mice after 4 days of treatment with PB, however, after 28 days of treatment there was either a much reduced increase (C57BL and C3B6F1) or no difference (C3H and B6C3F1) from controls. In all 4 types of mice after 4 and 28 days of treatment, PB increased the concentration of cytochrome P-450, the activity of aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AmDm) and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (ErDe) and the oxidation of testosterone (T). The oxidative metabolites of T were similar in the 4 types of mice.

Birkhahn RH, Awad S, Klaunig JE, Thomford NR. Interaction of ketosis and liver regeneration in the rat. J Surg Res. 1989 Nov;47(5):427-32. PMID: 2509817.

Abstract. Monoacetoacetin, the monoglyceride of acetoacetate, was investigated as a nutritional support for the regenerating liver. Following partial hepatectomy, rats were either fed an oral diet ad libitum or administered by total parenteral feeding glucose alone, monoacetoacetin-glucose mixture, or lipid emulsion-glucose for the nonprotein calories. Five rats from each treatment were killed at 6-hr intervals beginning 12 hr after partial hepatectomy and ending at 72 hr. The number of cells synthesizing DNA and the number of cells in mitosis were compared. Rats fed orally or infused with glucose alone or with lipid emulsion had similar parameters throughout. Rats infused with monoacetoacetin had approximately double the number of cells in mitosis and DNA synthesis compared to the other treatments. This stimulation by monoacetoacetin persisted 72 hr. It was concluded from the data that acetoacetate was the agent responsible for increased DNA synthesis and mitosis, but the mechanism for the stimulation was not identified.

Ruch RJ, Crist KA, Klaunig JE. Effects of culture duration on hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatocyte toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 Sep 15;100(3):451-64. PMID: 2781569.

Abstract. The effects of culture duration on primary cultured mouse hepatocyte antioxidant levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin E, and glutathione) and susceptibility to glucose oxidase (GO)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell killing and lipid peroxidation were examined. Membrane fatty acid composition was also evaluated. Adult male B6C3F1/CrlBR mouse hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion of the liver and cultured on 60-mm plastic dishes in Leibovitz’s L-15 medium supplemented with glucose (1 mg/ml), dexamethasone (1 microM), fetal bovine serum (10%, v/v), and gentamicin sulfate (50 micrograms/ml) for 0 hr (freshly isolated cells) to 96 hr. Hepatocyte toxicity (determined by lactate dehydrogenase release and lipid peroxidation) after a 2-hr exposure to GO (0.8-80 micrograms/ml) or H2O2 (1-5 mM) decreased with increased time in culture. This decreased hepatocyte sensitivity to GO and H2O2 toxicity was not related to antioxidant enzyme activity since superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase declined during the 96-hr culture period. In contrast, glutathione and vitamin E levels in the cultured hepatocytes rose to 274.9 +/- 8.3% and 220.6 +/- 18.6% of the levels in freshly isolated cells (129.6 +/- 11.5 nmol and 0.10 +/- 0.01 nmol per 10(6) hepatocytes, respectively). The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hepatocyte phospholipids and triglycerides decreased with culture duration while the percentage of oleic acid increased in esterified and free fatty acid pools after 2 hr in culture. Total fatty acids were not affected by time in culture. These results suggest that the decreased hepatocyte susceptibility to the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide may have been due to elevations in cellular GSH and vitamin E levels and decreases in membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. The data also indicate that hepatocytes in primary culture undergo changes in antioxidant levels and fatty acid composition that may affect free radical toxicity at different times in culture.

Diwan BA, Lubet RA, Nims RW, Klaunig JE, Weghorst CM, Henneman JR, Ward JM, Rice JM. Lack of promoting effect of clonazepam on the development of N-nitrosodiethylamine-initiated hepatocellular tumors in mice is correlated with its inability to inhibit cell-to-cell communication in mouse hepatocytes. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Sep;10(9):1719-24. PMID: 2766464.

Abstract. The tumor-promoting ability of clonazepam (CZP), a widely used benzodiazepine anticonvulsant, was investigated in an in vivo mouse liver tumor promotion assay and an in vitro mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication assay. The development of preneoplastic hepatocellular foci of cellular alteration and hepatocellular neoplasms was studied in male B6C3F1 mice initiated, at 5 weeks of age, with a single i.p. injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA; 90 mg/kg body weight) in tricaprylin, followed by administration of either phenobarbital (PB; 0.05%) or CZP (0.068% or 0.136%) in diet beginning 2 weeks after carcinogen injection and continuing to 60 weeks of age. Several mice from each group were killed after 9, 21, 33 or 53 weeks on test diet, and portions of liver and other organs were fixed in formalin and examined histologically. Unlike PB, CZP did not promote the development of preneoplastic hepatocellular foci or neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) in NDEA-initiated mice. Following limited (2 weeks) dietary exposure at 0.15%, CZP was a potent inducer of hepatic P450IIB1-mediated alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities. In contrast, the degree of induction in hepatic tissue from mice fed 0.136% CZP for 53 weeks was markedly lower than that in mice fed 0.05% PB for 53 weeks. In the in vitro assay, diazepam, a strong tumor promoter in mouse liver, significantly inhibited mouse hepatocyte gap junctional intercellular communication, while CZP had no significant effect on this parameter. Thus, CZP, a drug structurally related to diazepam, is inactive as a liver tumor promoter in mice.

Weghorst CM, Pereira MA, Klaunig JE. Strain differences in hepatic tumor promotion by phenobarbital in diethylnitrosamine- and dimethylnitrosamine-initiated infant male mice. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Aug;10(8):1409-12. PMID: 2752514.

Abstract. The effects of phenobarbital (PB) on hepatocellular carcinogenesis in three strains of nitrosamine-initiated infant male mice were evaluated. Fifteen-day-old C57Bl/6NCrlBR (C57Bl), C3H/HeNCr1BR (C3H) and B6C3F1 mice were treated with a single i.p. injection of either diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (5 micrograms/body wt), dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) (5 micrograms/body wt) or saline. One-half of the treated mice received PB via the drinking water (500 mg/l) for 24 weeks. The remaining treated mice were given deionized drinking water. Mice were killed at 28 weeks of age and hepatic lesions were evaluated. Only animals that received DENA or DMNA exhibited tumors. C3H mice treated with DENA + PB demonstrated a significant increase in hepatic adenoma number compared to C3H mice exposed to DENA only. Conversely, B6C3F1 males treated with DENA + PB exhibited a significant decrease in the number of hepatic adenomas compared to B6C3F1 males treated with DENA alone. No change was noted in adenoma size in B6C3F1 mice treated with DENA + PB from those receiving DENA only. Chronic PB exposure of C57Bl males previously treated with DENA had no effect on hepatic adenoma number or size. C3H mice treated with DMNA + PB displayed an increase in both adenoma size and adenoma number compared to C3H mice receiving DMNA only. Similarly, in B6C3F1 mice, PB treatment increased both the adenoma incidence and adenoma number in DMNA initiated mice. PB had no effect on hepatic adenoma incidence or number in DMNA-treated C57Bl mice. These data suggest that the ability of PB to promote hepatic tumorigenesis in the 15-day-old initiated mouse is dependent on both the strain of the mouse and the initiating chemical carcinogen.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, Lin EL. Effects of trichloroethylene and its metabolites on rodent hepatocyte intercellular communication. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989 Jul;99(3):454-65. PMID: 2749732.

Abstract. Chronic exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) results in hepatocellular cancer in mice but not rats. The induction of hepatic tumors by TCE appears to be mediated through nongenotoxic or tumor promotion mechanisms. One cellular effect exhibited by a number of nongenotoxic carcinogens and tumor promoters is the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication. In the present study, the effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites, trichloracetic acid (TCA), trichloroethanol (TCEth), and chloral hydrate (CH) on gap junction mediated intercellular communication in cultured B6C3F1 mouse and F344 rat hepatocytes were assessed. TCE and TCA inhibited intercellular communication in mouse hepatocytes but not in rat hepatocytes. TCEth and CH had no effect on hepatocyte intercellular communication in either rat or mouse cells. TCE and TCA inhibited intercellular communication in both 24-hr-old and freshly plated mouse hepatocytes. Both compounds produced greater inhibition of intercellular communication in freshly plated cells when compared to 24-hr-old cultures. TCE appeared to require cytochrome P450 metabolism by the mouse hepatocytes to exhibit its inhibitory effect on dye coupling since treatment with SKF-525A prevented the inhibition of intercellular communication by TCE. The inhibitory effect of TCA on intercellular communication was unaffected by treatment with SKF-525A. While the species dependent effect of TCE on intercellular communication may be correlated with different rates and extent of metabolism of TCE by rat and mouse hepatocytes, the inhibiting effect of TCA only on mouse hepatocytes suggests that other intrinsic factors in the male mouse make this species more susceptible to the effects of TCE and TCA on gap junction mediated intercellular communication. These findings may account, in part, for the observed species difference in susceptibility to TCE induced liver carcinogenesis.

Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Jun;10(6):1003-8. PMID: 2470525.

Abstract. An antioxidant fraction of Chinese green tea (green tea antioxidant; GTA), containing several catechins, has been previously shown to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin. In the present study, GTA was shown to have antioxidative activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide radical (O2-). GTA also prevented oxygen radical and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication in cultured B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes and human keratinocytes (NHEK cells). GTA (0.05-50 micrograms/ml) prevented the killing of hepatocytes (measured by lactate dehydrogenase release) by paraquat (1-10 mM) and glucose oxidase (0.8-40 micrograms/ml) in a concentration-dependent fashion. GTA (50 micrograms/ml) also prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by paraquat (5 mM), glucose oxidase (0.8 micrograms/ml), and phenobarbital (500 micrograms/ml). In addition, GTA (50 micrograms/ml) prevented the inhibition of intercellular communication in human keratinocytes by TPA (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication, two possible mechanisms by which tumor promoters may produce their promoting effects were therefore prevented by GTA. The inhibition of these two effects of pro-oxidant compounds may suggest a mechanism by which GTA inhibits tumor promotion in vivo.

Nigrovic V, Pandya JB, Klaunig JE, Fry K. Reactivity and toxicity of atracurium and its metabolites in vitro. Can J Anaesth. 1989 May;36(3 Pt 1):262-8. PMID: 2720863.

Abstract. Cytotoxicity of atracurium and of its metabolites was tested in vitro. Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to atracurium produced cellular damage evidenced by extrusion of an intracellular enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), into the incubation medium. Leakage of LDH was directly related to the concentration of atracurium in the medium (250 to 800 microM). If the spontaneous degradation of atracurium (presumably via Hofmann elimination) was first carried out in vitro and the degradation products subsequently added to the isolated hepatocytes, the leakage of LDH was also dose-dependent but larger than that observed after the addition of the parent drug. When l-cysteine was admixed to the products of the spontaneous degradation of atracurium prior to their addition to the liver cells, no leakage of LDH was observed. The results are compatible with the working hypothesis that atracurium itself and, even more so, acrylates formed in Hofmann elimination of atracurium, are reactive toward nucleophiles and damage the cells by alkylating nucleophiles present in cellular membranes. Antecedent covalent binding of acrylates to the nucleophile cysteine, i.e., the formation of acrylate-cysteine adducts, saturated the reactive capacity of acrylates for nucleophiles and thus prevented the reactive metabolites from alkylating the endogenous nucleophiles. Possible clinical consequences resulting from in vivo generation of reactive metabolites are not clear at the present time but are projected to be related to (a) the dose of atracurium administered, (b) the amount of acrylates generated, (c) the functional importance of the endogenous nucleophiles alkylated, and (d) the pathway and the speed of detoxification of atracurium and its metabolites.

Weghorst CM, Klaunig JE. Phenobarbital promotion in diethylnitrosamine-initiated infant B6C3F1 mice: influence of gender. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Mar;10(3):609-12. PMID: 2924405.

Abstract. Phenobarbital (PB) promotes hepatic tumorigenesis when chronically administered to male B6C3F1 mice after initiation with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) at 30 days of age. In contrast, when male B6C3F1 mice were initiated with DENA at 15 days of age, an inhibition of hepatic tumorigenesis occurred. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of gender on the inhibiting ability of PB in the 15 day old DENA-initiated B6C3F1 mouse. Mice were injected with either DENA (5 micrograms/g) or saline at 15 days of age. At weaning mice were given either PB (500 p.p.m.) containing drinking water or deionized drinking water for 24 weeks. Male mice treated with DENA and PB demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of hepatocellular adenomas compared to males receiving DENA only. In contrast, females exposed to DENA and PB exhibited an enhancement of hepatic adenoma number compared to those receiving only DENA. In an additional experiment, individual preneoplastic foci from male and female B6C3F1 mice initiated with DENA at 15 days of age were examined for their responsiveness to the mitogenic stimuli of PB. Mice were exposed to either PB-containing or PB-free drinking water for 7 days. In non-PB treated males and females, preneoplastic hepatocytes demonstrated higher rates of DNA synthetic labelling compared to normal hepatocytes with no gender difference noted. Males exposed to PB exhibited increased levels of DNA synthesis in normal cells but not in preneoplastic foci. Females treated with PB, however, demonstrated significant increases in DNA synthesis in both preneoplastic and normal hepatocytes compared to non-PB treated females and PB-treated males. These findings suggest that in male mice initiated with DENA at 15 days of age, the preneoplastic foci are refractory to the proliferative effects of PB which may account for the observed inhibition of hepatic tumorigenesis by PB in this mouse strain.

Gross SA, Bandyopadhyay S, Klaunig JE, Somani P. Amiodarone and desethylamiodarone toxicity in isolated hepatocytes in culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1989 Feb;190(2):163-9. PMID: 2536944.

Abstract. Amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic drug, has been found to be effective in the management of patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Recent reports describe the presence of myelinoid inclusion bodies following amiodarone therapy in liver, myocardium, white blood cells, lung, cornea, skin, and lymph nodes; their relationship to toxicity is unclear. The exact role of desethylamiodarone, the major metabolite, of amiodarone in systemic toxicity of the parent drug is not known. Concentration-response relationships for amiodarone and desethylamiodarone were investigated by adding 1-50 micrograms/ml of the compounds of dimethyl sulfoxide (controls) to hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in Leibovitz L-15 medium. Using lactate dehydrogenase release into the medium to quantitate cell death, both drugs were found to cause cell death in a concentration-dependent manner within 24 hr of incubation; this data showed desethylamiodarone to be significantly more toxic than amiodarone. In experiments with 50-micrograms/ml concentrations of amiodarone or desethylamiodarone, we found desethylamiodarone to produce a significantly greater release of lactate dehydrogenase as compared with amiodarone within 2-4 hr. Electron microscopic studies indicated the presence of myelinoid inclusion bodies at early culture stages followed by progressive swelling of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticula, disruption of membranes, aggregation of subcellular structures, and ultimately cell death. Ultrastructural changes occurred sooner in the hepatocytes treated with desethylamiodarone than with amiodarone. These data demonstrate that (i) desethylamiodarone is more toxic than amiodarone; (ii) acute toxicity of desethylamiodarone and amiodarone can be quantitated by lactate dehydrogenase release; (iii) both desethylamiodarone and amiodarone can induce myelinoid inclusion bodies in cultured hepatocytes; and (iv) toxicity is characterized by progressive subcellular changes leading to cell death.

Klaunig, J.E., Ruch, R.J., Hampton, J.A., Weghorst, C.M., Hartnett, J.A. (1989). Gap-Junctional Intercellular Communication and Murine Hepatic Carcinogenesis. In F. Becker and T. Slaga (Eds.), Proceedings of Experimental Tumor Biology. San Diego: Academic Press.

Klaunig, J.E., Hartnett, J.A., Ruch, R.J., Weghorst, C.M., Hampton, J.A., Schafer, L.D. (1989). Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication in Hepatic Carcinogenesis. Proceedings of the Fifth ICEM (International Conference on Environmental Mutagens). New York: Alan Liss.

1988

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, DeAngelo AB, Kaylor WH. Inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication by phthalate monoesters. Cancer Lett. 1988 Dec 1;43(1-2):65-71. PMID: 3203332.

Abstract. A series of straight and branched chain phthalate monoesters were examined for their effects on hepatocyte intercellular communication in male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes. Intercellular communication was determined autoradiographically following the passage and incorporation of [5-3H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labelled hepatocytes into non-labelled hepatocytes. Intercellular communication was evaluated in hepatocytes after 8 h treatment of straight and branched chain phthalate esters at sublethal concentrations. Straight chain phthalate monoesters (mono(ethyl)phthalate, mono(n-butyl) phthalate, mono(n-hexyl)phthalate, mono(n-octyl)phthalate, mono(n-nonyl)phthalate and mono(isononyl)phthalate) had no effect on hepatocyte intercellular communication. Branched chain phthalate monoesters that contained an ethylalkyl moiety (i.e. mono(2-ethylpropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethylbutyl)phthalate, mono(2-ethylpentyl)-phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) inhibited intercellular communication. These results show a structure-activity relationship in the ability of phthalate monoesters to inhibit intercellular communication in mouse hepatocytes. Based upon previous correlations between inhibition of intercellular communication in hepatocytes and hepatocarcinogenicity, these data suggest that branched chain phthalate esters may be liver carcinogens in male B6C3F1 mice.

Klaunig JE, Barut BA. Influence of transplantation site on metastatic ability of mouse bladder carcinoma sublines. J Urol. 1988 Oct;140(4):844-7. PMID: 3418820.

Abstract. The influence of the primary implantation site on the metastatic behavior of a murine transitional cell carcinoma line (MBT-2) and three metastatic sublines (L3F1, L3F2, and L3F3) was studied. The parent MBT-2 cell line produced a low incidence of lung metastasis after intravenous injection and no metastases from the primary tumor when injected either subcutaneously in the right hind flank or in the footpad. Intramuscular implantation of the MBT-2 cells in the right hind flank resulted in a significant increase over the subcutaneous, footpad, and intravenous sites in the incidence and number of lung metastases. Three in vivo/in vitro selected metastatic sublines (L3F1, L3F2, and L3F3) were highly metastatic when injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly, and intravenously. A low number of pulmonary metastases was observed after footpad implantation of the three sublines. This study demonstrated a definite implantation site-influence on the metastatic ability of the parent MBT-2 line and the three selected sublines. Intramuscular implantation was the most permissive implantation site for the development of spontaneous metastasis for the MBT-2 line and the L3F1, L3F2, and L3F3 sublines.

Klaunig JE, Weghorst CM, Pereira MA. Effect of phenobarbital on diethylnitrosamine and dimethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular tumors in male B6C3F1 mice. Cancer Lett. 1988 Sep-Oct;42(1-2):133-9. PMID: 3180032.

Abstract. The effect of the type of carcinogen initiator on the ability of phenobarbital (PB) to promote hepatic tumor formation in 15-day-old initiated male B6C3F1 mice was evaluated. Fifteen-day-old male B6C3F1 mice were divided into 6 groups of 10 mice each. Groups 1 and 2 received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (5 micrograms/body wt). Groups 3 and 4 received a single i.p. injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (5 micrograms/g body wt). Groups 3 and 4 received a single i.p. injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) (5 micrograms/g body wt). Groups 5 and 6 received a single i.p. injection of saline. At weaning (28 days of age), mice in groups 2, 4 and 6 received PB (500 mg/ml) in their drinking water. Mice in groups 1, 3 and 5 received deionized drinking water. Drinking water treatment continued for 24 weeks at which time mice were sampled. At sampling, mice were examined for hepatic tumors by histology. Mice in groups 5 (no treatment) and 6 (PB only) did not exhibit hepatic tumors. Groups 2 (DENA + PB) displayed a decrease in hepatic adenomas from that of group 1 (DENA only), confirming previous observations. Treatment with DMNA and PB (group 4), however, resulted in a significant increase in both hepatic adenoma incidence and number over that of DMNA only (group 3) treated mice. The promoted adenomas appeared to be predominantly eosinophilic in appearance. The type of initiator therefore appears important in determining if 15-day-old initiated male B6C3F1 mice respond to the promotion effects of PB.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE. Inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication by paraquat-generated oxygen free radicals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988 Jul;94(3):427-36. PMID: 3400094.

Abstract. Intercellular communication through gap junctions functions in electrical synapsing, homeostasis, hormonal response, embryogenesis, and growth control. Many neurotoxicants, teratogens, and carcinogens are capable of inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication and this effect may be related to their toxic activity. In addition, many of these toxic agents are capable of stimulating oxygen free radical production in cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if oxygen free radicals at noncytotoxic levels could inhibit intercellular communication in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Intercellular communication was evaluated in 24-hr-old cultures of male B6C3F1/Cr1BR mouse hepatocytes by microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye and visualization of dye spread to adjacent hepatocytes (dye-coupling). Dye-coupling was rapidly established in freshly plated primary cultured hepatocytes reaching a level of over 90% after 24 hr of culture. After 24 hr, dye-coupling paralleled hepatocyte survival. Treatment of hepatocyte cultures with noncytotoxic concentrations of paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride; PQ) (0.5-5 mM), hydrogen peroxide (0.5-2 mM), glucose oxidase (0.1 U/ml), or xanthine oxidase (0.2 U/ml plus 1 mM xanthine) for exposure durations of 2-8 hr resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in dye-coupling. Addition of the antioxidants DPPD (N,N-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine; 25 microM) and vitamin E (D,L-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 100 microM) decreased the inhibitory effect of PQ on dye-coupling. In contrast, addition of the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole or the glutathione depletor diethylmaleate to PQ-treated cultures potentiated PQ-induced inhibition of dye-coupling. PQ stimulated NADPH-dependent mouse liver microsomal superoxide radical production. Thus, one effect of prooxidant compounds appears to be the inhibition of IC. This effect may be important in the sublethal toxicity of oxygen radical generating compounds.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE. Kinetics of phenobarbital inhibition of intercellular communication in mouse hepatocytes. Cancer Res. 1988 May 1;48(9):2519-23. PMID: 3356013.

Abstract. Gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in untreated and phenobarbital-treated C57BL/6 X C3H F1 mouse hepatocytes was evaluated by microinjection of fluorescent Lucifer Yellow CH dye. Intercellular communication (dye coupling) was detected in untreated hepatocytes after 0.5 h in culture, reached a maximum level in 24- and 48-h-old cultures (85.2%), and then decreased over the next 72 h. Phenobarbital (20-500 micrograms/ml) decreased dye coupling in a dose-related manner when added to freshly plated cultures. This inhibitory effect was evident during 0.5-12 h of treatment but was not seen in cultures treated for 24 h. Phenobarbital also decreased dye coupling within 30 min when added to established (24-h-old) hepatocyte cultures. This effect was maximal after 2 h treatment. In these cultures, dye coupling recovered within 15 min after removal of the promoter. Hepatocytes, pretreated with phenobarbital for 24 h, did not show inhibition of dye coupling after reapplication of phenobarbital. Thus, phenobarbital inhibited mouse hepatocyte dye coupling rapidly and reversibly, and the cells became refractory to the inhibitory effect after prolonged treatment

Klaunig JE, Barut BA. Role of the implantation site on metastatic ability of the murine MBT-2 transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Res. 1988;16(1):19-21. PMID: 3344561.

Abstract. The influence of implantation site on the metastatic behavior of a murine transitional cell carcinoma line (MBT-2) was examined. MBT-2 cells were injected into one of four anatomic sites; subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously or into the footpad, to evaluate the influence of implantation site on the formation and number of metastases. The MBT-2 cell line produced a low incidence of lung metastases after intravenous injection with a mean of 1.1 lung tumors per mouse. Injection of MBT-2 cells into the footpad or subcutaneously did not produce metastases from the primary tumor. Intramuscular implantation, however, resulted in a sixty percent incidence of metastasis with a mean of 8.2 lung nodules per mouse. This study demonstrated a definite implantation site influence on the metastatic ability of the MBT-2 line.

Klaunig JE, Pereira MA, Ruch RJ, Weghorst CM. Dose-response relationship of diethylnitrosamine-initiated tumors in neonatal balb/c mice: effect of phenobarbital promotion. Toxicol Pathol. 1988;16(3):381-5. PMID: 3194660.

Abstract. The dose-response of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis was determined in infant Balb/c male mice with and without subsequent phenobarbital treatment. Male Balb/c mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of DENA (0, 2.5, 10.0, 25.0 or 50.0 micrograms/gbw) in saline on day 15 of age. Ninety mice were treated at each dose level. At weaning, mice received either deionized drinking water (45 mice per group) or deionized drinking water containing 500 mg/L sodium phenobarbital (PB) (45 mice per group). Mice from each group were sacrificed 12, 24, and 40 weeks post-weaning. Liver and lung tumors were found in DENA-only-treated and DENA + PB-treated mice. In DENA-only-treated mice, the incidence and number of hepatic adenomas were similar (not dose-dependent) at DENA doses of 10, 25, and 50 micrograms/gbw at each of the 3 sampling times. DENA-only-treated mice did display a time-related increase in hepatic adenoma incidence and number at each dose. In PB-treated mice, the hepatic adenoma number was dependent upon the dose of DENA between 2.5 and 50 micrograms/gbw. PB treatment following DENA administration resulted in a decrease in the time required for the detection of hepatic adenomas and increased the number of hepatic adenomas at most sampling times compared to the mice that received DENA only. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HPC) were detected in mice receiving the highest DENA doses (25 and 50 micrograms/gbw). PB treatment increased the number and incidence of HPC and decreased the time of first detection of HPC

Hampton, J.A., Klaunig, J.E., Goldblatt, P.J. (1988). Ultrastructure of Hepatic Tumors in Teleosts. In P. Motta (Ed.), Biopathology of the Liver: A Test Atlas of Fine Structure (pp. 167-175). Lancaster: MTP Press.

1987

Klaunig JE, Barut BA. The efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents against murine bladder metastasis. J Urol. 1987 Dec;138(6):1471-3. PMID: 3682079.

Abstract. Three chemotherapeutic agents, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (cis-platinum), were examined for their effectiveness against metastases in a murine transitional cell carcinoma model. Systemic treatment of the drugs was applied against a MBT-2 derived subline which generates 100% incidence of lung metastases in C3H mice by five weeks. The drugs were examined for their effect against the number of metastases, incidence of metastasis and size of the subcutaneously implanted primary tumor. All three compounds significantly reduced both the number of lung metastases and the incidence when compared to untreated animals. None of the agents proved 100% effective against metastatic tumors. These results suggest the existence of a chemotherapeutic resistant population of metastatic cells. Administration of methotrexate and cis-platinum effectively reduced the size of the primary tumor as compared to untreated animals. Cyclophosphamide did not significantly affect primary tumor size. The response of the antineoplastic agents against the metastatic tumor cells indicates that the L3F2 metastatic cell line is an effective model to study agents against metastatic bladder cancer.

Hampton JA, Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ. Resident sinusoidal macrophages in the liver of the brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus): an ultrastructural, functional and cytochemical study. Anat Rec. 1987 Dec;219(4):338-46. PMID: 3448951.

Abstract. Ultrastructural, functional, and cytochemical characteristics of resident sinusoidal macrophages (RSM) in brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) liver were examined. Following perfusion fixation of the hepatic vascular bed, light micrographs revealed RSM that possessed multiple elongate cytoplasmic processes and frequently contained erythrocytes in various stages of degradation. Following brief perfusion fixation, light microscope examination of vibratome sections of bullhead liver reacted for peroxidase revealed intensely positive RSM. By transmission electron microscopy, peroxidase activity was localized to the nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic granules of RSM and in endothelial and perisinusoidal fat-storing cells. In cryostat sections of fresh-frozen liver, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) was uniformly distributed over hepatocytes, whereas intensely positive punctate staining for G-6-PDH was localized over RSM. To test for phagocytosis by RSM, latex beads (0.81 micron) were injected into a tributary of the hepatic portal vein 2 min prior to perfusion fixation. Latex beads appeared either singly or in dense aggregates within RSM. Ultrastructurally, RSM were characterized by an irregularly shaped, eccentrically located nucleus, electron-dense vacuoles, small patches of granular endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus, elongated mitochondria, desmosomes or desmosome-like densities that served as a source of attachment to endothelial cells, and a centriole with radiating microtubules. Invaginations of the plasma membrane (vermiform processes) characteristic of mammalian Kupffer cells were not observed in bullhead RSM. The results indicated a resident cell population of sinusoidal macrophages in the bullhead liver with properties that partially resembled mammalian Kupffer cells. These results are important for the identification of the normal resident cells in the bullhead liver.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ. Role of cyclic AMP in the inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication by liver tumor promoters. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):159-70. PMID: 2823418.

Abstract. The liver tumor promoters phenobarbital (PB) (20-500 micrograms/ml) and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) (1-10 micrograms/ml) inhibited intercellular communication between primary cultured B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes after 8 hr of treatment. Intercellular communication was detected autoradiographically as the passage and incorporation of [5-3H]uridine nucleotides from prelabeled donor hepatocytes to recipient hepatocytes. The addition of either dibutyryl cyclic AMP (N6,2′-O-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate) (0.001-0.1 mM) or caffeine (0.01-1 mM) decreased or completely abolished the inhibitory effects of PB and DDT on intercellular communication. Cyclic AMP (adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate; cAMP) in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cyclic AMP in nontreated, freshly plated cultures declined from 4.2 +/- 0.7 pmol/mg protein after 1 hr in culture to 2.4 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg protein after 8 hr in culture. Phenobarbital at 250 and 500 micrograms/ml significantly decreased cyclic AMP below control values after 1 hr of treatment. However, no difference in the amount of cyclic AMP was detected between control and PB-treated cultures after 2, 4, and 8 hr in culture or with lower PB concentrations. DDT at 10 micrograms/ml decreased cAMP levels in the hepatocytes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr of treatment. No effects were seen after 8 hr of treatment or with lower DDT concentrations. DDT (10 micrograms/ml) also decreased cAMP levels in 24-hr-old cultures while PB (500 micrograms/ml) had no effect. Addition of dibutyryl cAMP (0.1 mM) or caffeine (1.0 mM) to freshly plated cultures elevated cAMP levels 50-fold and twofold, respectively. These data suggest that the inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication by PB and DDT at the highest concentrations tested may be mediated by transient decreases in intercellular cAMP levels.

Klaunig JE, Weghorst CM, Pereira MA. Effect of the age of B6C3F1 mice on phenobarbital promotion of diethylnitrosamine-initiated liver tumors. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Aug;90(1):79-85. PMID: 3629593.

Abstract. Chronic exposure to phenobarbital (PB) in the drinking water of male B6C3F1 mice starting at 4 weeks of age and subsequent to a single (ip) injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) administered on Day 15 of age has been shown to result in the inhibition of hepatic tumor formation. In this study, we varied the time of onset of PB administration to determine if sexual maturity would affect liver tumor formation and progression. Male B6C3F1 mice were divided into eight groups. Groups 1-4 received a single (ip) dose of 5 mg/kg DENA at 15 days of age while mice in groups 5-8 received saline. At weaning (4 weeks of age), groups 1 and 5 received deionized drinking water (DDW) for 24 weeks; groups 2 and 6 received PB (500 ppm) in the drinking water (PB DW) for 16 weeks followed by DDW for 8 weeks; groups 3 and 7 received DDW for 4 weeks, PB DW for 16 weeks, and then DDW for 4 weeks; and groups 4 and 8 received DDW for 8 weeks and PB DW for 16 weeks. Mice were killed at 28 weeks of age and hepatic lesions were evaluated. Mice which did not receive DENA (groups 5-8) exhibited no liver tumors. Animals in groups 1-4 exhibited hepatocellular foci and adenomas. PB treatment in groups 2, 3, or 4 resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of DENA-initiated hepatocellular foci and adenomas when compared to those observed in group 1. The number of foci in group 4 was significantly decreased compared to those in groups 2 and 3. There was no significant difference in the adenoma incidence among groups 2, 3, and 4. No significant differences were observed in the sizes of foci or adenomas among groups 1-4. Data from this study suggest that the inhibition of hepatocellular tumorigenesis by PB remains intact even when the start of the administration of PB is withheld up to 12 weeks of age.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ. Strain and species effects on the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by liver tumor promoters. Cancer Lett. 1987 Aug;36(2):161-8. PMID: 3621148.

Abstract. The effect of the liver tumor promoters phenobarbital (PB), 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichlorethane (DDT), and dieldrin on gap junction-mediated intercellular communication between primary cultured hepatocytes from male mice (B6C3F1), C3H, C57BL, and Balb/c strains) and male F344 rats was determined. Intercellular communication was detected autoradiographically as the passage and incorporation of [5-3H]uridine nucleotides from prelabelled donor hepatocytes to donor-contacting recipient hepatocytes. At non-toxic concentrations, PB (20-500 micrograms/ml) inhibited intercellular communication between B6C3F1, C3H, and Balb/c mouse hepatocytes and F344 rat hepatocytes, but not between C57BL mouse hepatocytes. DDT (1-10 micrograms/ml) inhibited intercellular communication between hepatocytes from all 4 strains of mice and the F344 rat. Dieldrin (1-10 micrograms/ml) inhibited intercellular communication between hepatocytes from the 4 strains of mice but not between rat hepatocytes. These findings showed a good correlation with the in vivo liver tumor promoting/hepatocarcinogenic actions of PB, DDT and dieldrin in the 4 mouse strains and the F344 rat strain.

Nigrovic V, Klaunig JE, Smith SL, Schultz NE. Potentiation of atracurium toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes by inhibition of its hydrolytic degradation pathway. Anesth Analg. 1987 Jun;66(6):512-6. PMID: 3578863.

Abstract. This study tested the hypothesis that the esters of acrylic acid might be responsible for the previously observed cytotoxic effect of atracurium. Rats were pretreated with triorthotolyl phosphate (TOTP), an inhibitor of the hydrolytic degradation of atracurium. Because hydrolysis of acrylates is also inhibited by TOTP and because the hydrolysis represents a detoxification pathway for these esters, we postulated that the leak of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by atracurium would be enhanced in hepatocytes harvested from rats pretreated with TOTP. Hepatocytes isolated from rats previously treated with TOTP (25 or 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, 20 hr before induced death) were incubated for 4 hr in the absence of muscle relaxants or in the presence of either atracurium (0.008-0.8 mM) or metocurine (0.015-0.85 mM). Atracurium produced a concentration-dependent leakage of LDH. The leakage out of cells obtained from TOTP-pretreated rats was greater than was the leakage out of hepatocytes harvested from animals pretreated only with corn oil (a vehicle for TOTP). Metocurine did not produce a leak of LDH. It is concluded that the LDH leakage was produced by ester-type products of atracurium degradation. Acrylates appear to be the toxic agent.

Goldblatt PJ, Hampton JA, DiDio LN, Skeel KA, Klaunig JE. Morphologic and histochemical analysis of the newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) liver. Anat Rec. 1987 Apr;217(4):328-38. PMID: 3035962.

Abstract. Architectural arrangement, ultrastructure, and selected histochemical properties of the newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) liver were examined. Although hematopoietic tissue (1-4 cells thick) invested the liver, direct vascular communication between this tissue and hepatic parenchyma was not observed. The liver was intensely positive when stained with Oil-red-O and periodic acid-Schiff reagent and connective tissue was limited to large vascular channels and the capsule. A distinctive polarity was observed in the hepatic vascular system when lobes were viewed in cross section. Dorsally, portal venules accompanied arterioles and branches of the biliary system, while tributaries of hepatic veins were observed ventrally. Following perfusion fixation, hepatocytes appeared as sheets of cells 1-5 cells thick; however, lobules as defined in adult mammalian liver were absent. Hepatocytes contained abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, electron-dense lysosomes, patches of granular endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Continuous endothelial cells lined sinusoids and exhibited fenestrae organized into structures similar to sieve plates observed in mammalian liver. Variable numbers of melanin-containing macrophages and subendothelial macrophages were observed; however, Kupffer cells and lipid containing perisinusoidal fat-storing cells were not seen. Patterns of reaction product for glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) were localized in the newt liver. All enzymes exhibited a uniform distribution pattern; however, small punctate regions of intensely positive G-6-PDH cells were noted within hepatic parenchyma. Cells comprising the hematopoietic tissue were intensely positive for G-6-Pase, G-6-PHD, and negative for SDH.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE, Pereira MA. Inhibition of intercellular communication between mouse hepatocytes by tumor promoters. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Jan;87(1):111-20. PMID: 2432692.

Abstract. Tumor promoters can inhibit gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in cultured cells. Since intercellular communication is thought to be important in normal cellular growth control, inhibition of intercellular communication by tumor promoters may be an important mechanism by which preneoplastic cells escape normal growth regulation and progress towards neoplasia. We have evaluated the effects of tumor promoters on intercellular communication between B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. “Donor” hepatocytes were labeled with 4 microCi[5-3H]uridine/ml for 4 hr. Nonlabeled “recipient” hepatocytes were then plated onto and cocultured with the labeled donors. Hepatocyte cultures were then treated with either the tumor promoters or the solvent vehicle. After 2-24 hr, the cells were fixed and processed for autoradiography. Intercellular communication between donor and recipient hepatocytes was detected as an increase in autoradiographic grains over recipient cells in contact with donor cells, indicating the passage of labeled nucleotides from donor to recipient hepatocytes. Autoradiographic grains were not observed over recipient hepatocytes not in contact with donor cells thus indicating negligible transfer of labeled nucleotide through the medium. Intercellular communication in untreated and solvent vehicle treated hepatocytes was detected in approximately 80% of the donor-contacting recipients after 8-12 hr culture. Phenobarbital, DDT (1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane), Aroclor 1254, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer), and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate), at noncytotoxic concentrations, significantly decreased hepatocyte intercellular communication in a dose-dependent manner.

1986

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE. Effects of tumor promoters, genotoxic carcinogens and hepatocytotoxins on mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication. Cell Biol Toxicol. 1986 Dec;2(4):469-83. PMID: 2477123.  

Abstract. Intercellular communication via gap junctions may be an important mechanism of cellular growth control. Tumor promoters can inhibit intercellular communication between cultured cells, while genotoxic carcinogens apparently lack this capability. The inhibition of intercellular communication by tumor promoters may be an essential mechanism by which tumor promotion occurs in vivo. In this study, the liver tumor promoters phenobarbital, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer), DDT (1,1-Bis[4-chlorophenyl]-2,2,2-trichloroethane), Aroclor 1254 (a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture) and dieldrin inhibited intercellular communication between male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. Intercellular communication was detected as the passage of [5-3H]uridine nucleotides from pre-labelled donor hepatocytes to non-labelled recipient hepatocytes. Mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication was also inhibited by the skin tumor promoter TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate), but not by the bladder tumor promoter saccharin. The genotoxic hepatocarcinogens dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, benzo[a]pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene, and the hepatocytotoxins bromobenzene, acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and methotrexate had no effect on mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication at non-cytotoxic levels. These results suggest that the ability to inhibit mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication is an effect specific to tumor promoters.

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, Pereira MA. Carcinogenicity of chlorinated methane and ethane compounds administered in drinking water to mice. Environ Health Perspect. 1986 Nov;69:89-95. PMID: 3816740.

Abstract. The chlorinated hydrocarbons chloroform (CHCl3), 1,1-dichlorethane (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) have been detected in finished drinking water. When administered to B6C3F1 mice by gavage in corn oil, these compounds have been shown to induce hepatic tumors. The present study examines the effect on liver tumor incidence of continuous treatment of CHCl3 (600 mg/L and 1800 mg/L), 1,1-DCE (835 mg/L and 2500 mg/L), and 1,2-DCE (835 mg/L and 2500 mg/L) administered in drinking water to male B6C3F1 mice using a two-stage (initiation/promotion) treatment protocol. Seventy 4-week-old male B6C3F1 mice constituted each treatment group. Of these mice, 35 were initiated by treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (10 mg/L) in the drinking water for 4 weeks. The remaining 35 received deionized drinking water. Each group was subsequently treated with one of two concentrations of CHCl3, 1,1-DCE, or 1,2-DCE in drinking water for 52 weeks. An additional group received phenobarbital (PB) (500 mg/L) and served as the positive control for liver tumor promotion. Mice were sampled after 24 weeks (10 mice) and 52 weeks (25 mice). At sampling, liver and lung tumors were detected. None of the compounds increased the number or incidence of lung or liver tumors by themselves. PB promoted liver tumor formation (but not lung tumors) in the DENA-initiated mice. 1,1-DCE and 1,2-DCE did not affect the incidence or number of liver or lung tumors in the DENA-initiated animals. CHCl3, however, inhibited liver and lung tumorigenesis in the DENA-initiated mice

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE, Schultz NE, Askari AB, Lacher DA, Pereira MA, Goldblatt PJ. Mechanisms of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride toxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Environ Health Perspect. 1986 Nov;69:301-5. PMID: 3816733.

Abstract. Mechanisms of chloroform (CHCl3) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity to primary cultured male B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes were investigated. The cytotoxicity of both CHCl3 and CCl4 was dose- and duration-dependent. Maximal hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the culture medium, occurred with the highest concentrations of CHCl3 (5 mM) and CCl4 (2.5 mM) used and with the longest duration of treatment (20 hr). CCl4 was approximately 16 times more toxic than CHCl3 to the hepatocytes. The toxicity of these compounds was decreased by adding the mixed function oxidase system (MFOS) inhibitor, SKF-525A (25 microM) to the cultures. The addition of diethyl maleate (0.25 mM), which depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH)-potentiated CHCl3 and CCl4 toxicity. The toxicity of CHCl3 and CCl4 could also be decreased by adding the antioxidants N,N’-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) (25 microM), alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) (0.1 mM), or superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/mL) to the cultures. These results suggest that: in mouse hepatocytes, both CHCl3 and CCl4 are metabolized to toxic components by the MFOS; GSH plays a role in detoxifying those metabolites; free radicals are produced during the metabolism of CHCl3 and CCl4; and free radicals may be important mediators of the toxicity of these two halomethanes

Nigrovic V, Klaunig JE, Smith SL, Schultz NE, Wajskol A. Comparative toxicity of atracurium and metocurine in isolated rat hepatocytes. Anesth Analg.1986 Nov;65(11):1107-11. PMID: 3767007.

Abstract. Primary cultures of liver cells isolated from seven rats were used to study the possible toxicity of atracurium and metocurine. The muscle relaxants were separately added to the culture medium and the cells then incubated for 4 hr. The amount of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) that leaked into the culture medium was determined at the end of incubation. The customary assumption was made that the exudation of LDH reflects the toxic effects of the relaxants. In untreated dishes, approximately 11% of the total intracellular LDH leaked out during the incubation. The net leakage of LDH produced by the relaxants was obtained by subtracting this amount from the LDH activity determined in the media of dishes with the relaxants added. On this basis, metocurine, in concentrations of 12-850 X 10(-6)M, did not cause a net leak of LDH. On the other hand, atracurium, in similar molar concentrations, caused a statistically significant and concentration-dependent leak of LDH that, at its maximum, amounted to more than one half of the intracellular LDH. The results are interpreted in terms of damage to cellular membranes produced by atracurium or its metabolites. Although the exact biochemical process was not identified, we hypothesize that acrylates–produced by Hofmann elimination from atracurium–might be the likely toxic species.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE. Antioxidant prevention of tumor promoter induced inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication. Cancer Lett. 1986 Nov;33(2):137-50. PMID: 2431762.

Abstract. The liver tumor promoters, phenobarbital (20-500 micrograms/ml), lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer; 0.1-5.0 micrograms/ml), and DDT (1,1-bis[4-chlorophenyl]-2,2,2-trichloroethane; 0.5-10.0 micrograms/ml), and the hydrogen peroxide-generating enzyme, glucose oxidase (0.01-0.10 units/ml) inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication between B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. Addition of the antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (100 units/ml), DPPD (N,N’-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine; 25 microM), and vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate; 100 microM), to tumor promoter-treated cultures prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication. DPPD and vitamin E, prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by glucose oxidase. Superoxide dismutase had no effect on the inhibition of intercellular communication caused by glucose oxidase. These results suggest that activated oxygen species are produced during liver tumor promoter treatment of cultured mouse hepatocytes and are responsible for the inhibition of mouse hepatocyte intercellular communication by the promoters.

Pereira MA, Klaunig JE, Herren-Freund SL, Ruch RJ. Effect of phenobarbital on the development of liver tumors in juvenile and adult mice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986 Aug;77(2):449-52. PMID: 3461205.

Abstract. The effect of long-term exposure to phenobarbital (CAS: 50-06-6) subsequent to tumor initiation on the development of liver tumors in BALB/c and (C57BL/6 X C3H/Anf)F1 (B6C3F1) mice was determined. In male B6C3F1 mice that received either 15 or 45 ppm diethylnitrosamine [(DENA) CAS: 55-18-5] between 6 and 10 weeks of age, subsequent treatment with 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital in the drinking water resulted in the promotion of liver tumors. However, in male B6C3F1 mice initiated on day 15 of age with 25 mg DENA/kg, beginning long-term treatment of 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital at 4 weeks of age inhibited the development of liver tumors, whereas in male BALB/c mice initiated with 25 mg DENA/kg on day 15 of age, beginning the long-term treatment with 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital at 4 weeks of age promoted the development of liver tumors. Hence phenobarbital can either enhance or inhibit the formation of liver tumors, depending both on the mouse strain used and the animal’s age at the start of exposure.

Burns RA, Klaunig JE, Shulok JR, Davis WJ, Goldblatt PJ. Tumor-localizing and photosensitizing properties of hematoporphyrin derivative in hamster buccal pouch carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1986 Apr;61(4):368-72. PMID: 2939386.

Abstract. The tumor-localizing and photochemotherapeutic properties of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) were examined in 7, 12 dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)-induced oral cancers in the Syrian hamster. Oral tumors in hamsters injected with HPD (50 micrograms per gram of body weight) exhibited bright salmon pink fluorescence when exposed to long-wave ultraviolet light 24 hours after intraperitoneal HPD injection. Adjacent tumor-free mucosa did not fluoresce. Similarly, tumors not treated with HPD, normal mucosa treated with HPD, and normal mucosa not treated with HPD did not fluoresce. Tumors in animals that received HPD and photochemotherapy (PCT) were examined for gross and microscopic pathologic changes following the phototreatment. Tumors displayed edema, hemorrhage, and cellular necrosis that progressed with the time of sampling after photochemotherapy. Complete tumor necrosis was evident in the majority of oral tumors 24 hours after HPD PCT.

Shulok JR, Klaunig JE, Selman SH, Schafer PJ, Goldblatt PJ. Cellular effects of hematoporphyrin derivative photodynamic therapy on normal and neoplastic rat bladder cells. Am J Pathol. 1986 Feb;122(2):277-83. PMID: 2936252.

Abstract. HPD is known to localize in neoplastic cells and when exposed to the appropriate wavelength of light causes cytotoxicity. The authors have established a rat urothelial cell model for use in comparing and contrasting the effects of HPD photodynamic therapy (PDT) in normal (RBL-01) and transitional cell carcinoma (AY27) bladder cell lines. Uptake, toxicity, and morphologic damage following exposure to HPD PDT were evaluated. Trypan blue exclusion was used for determination of the toxicity of several HPD concentrations (1, 10, 25, and 50 micrograms/ml) with increasing duration of incubation with HPD (0, 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours). Both cell lines displayed increased toxicity with higher concentrations of HPD; however, the AY27 cells were more susceptible to the toxic effects of HPD PDT than the RBL-01 cells at the higher HPD doses studied (25 and 50 micrograms/ml). Viability decreased with increased duration of HPD incubation in RBL-01 cells up until 4 hours, after which it showed a steady increase. Viability decreased in the AY27 cells with increased duration of HPD incubation. An increase in serum concentration in the medium resulted in an increase in viability for both cell lines. Both cell lines demonstrated fast initial uptake of HPD followed by slower uptake over the time studied. By 24 and 48 hours the AY27 cells contained twice the amount of methanol-extractable porphyrins as the RBL-01 cells. The initial morphologic change following HPD PDT was damage to mitochondria. Mitochondrial damage occurred immediately after PDT in the AY27 cells and 30 minutes after PDT in the RBL-01 cells. Both cell lines exhibited a similar progression of cell injury; however, morphologic damage was observed earlier after PDT and appeared more extensive in the AY27 cells

Dixit R, Schut HA, Klaunig JE, Stoner GD. Metabolism and DNA binding of 2,6-dinitrotoluene in Fischer-344 rats and A/J mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Jan;82(1):53-61. PMID: 3945944.

Abstract. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in Fischer-344 rats, while its 2,4-isomer is believed to be noncarcinogenic. Neither 2,6-DNT nor 2,4-DNT is carcinogenic in the strain A mouse lung tumor bioassay. To explore the possible reasons for these differences in tumor responses, we have studied the in vitro metabolism and DNA binding of 2,6-DNT in cultured hepatocytes of the Fischer-344 rat and the A/J mouse, and have also investigated the in vivo DNA binding of 2,6-DNT and 2,4-DNT in these two species. In vitro metabolism of 2,6-DNT by rat and mouse hepatocytes was similar and resulted mainly in the formation of 2,6-dinitrobenzyl alcohol, either unconjugated or as a glucuronide (57.5 to 85.5% of the total per fraction), with smaller amounts of polar, acidic metabolites (8.4 to 38.7%) and minor amounts (1.2 to 5.3%) of 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene. Anaerobic metabolism of 2,6-DNT by an extract of rat or mouse cecal contents resulted mainly in the formation of 2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 2-(N-acetylamino)-6-nitrotoluene, and minor amounts of 2,6-diaminotoluene. Ip administration of 2,6-DNT or 2,4-DNT (150 mg/kg each) to Fischer-344 rats resulted, after 24 hr, in covalent binding to DNA of the liver (131.1 to 259.9 pmol 2,6-DNT/mg DNA; 215.4 to 226.8 pmol 2,4-DNT/mg DNA), and lower binding to DNA of the lungs and the intestine (14.9 to 22.7 pmol 2,6-DNT/mg DNA; 45.0 to 75.0 pmol 2,4-DNT/mg DNA). Similar treatment of A/J mice resulted in lower binding in the liver (25.9 to 31.9 pmol 2,6-DNT/mg DNA; 42.6 to 58.9 pmol 2,4-DNT/mg DNA), no detectable binding of 2,6-DNT in extrahepatic tissues and low amounts of binding of 2,4-DNT to lung and intestinal DNA (9.7 to 39.0 pmol/mg DNA). In vitro binding of 2,6-DNT to DNA of cultured hepatocytes from both A/J mice and Fischer-344 rats required prior metabolism of 2,6-DNT by the respective extracts from cecal contents. DNA binding was non-detectable in hepatocytes incubated with 2,6-DNT only. It is concluded that binding of 2,6-DNT to liver DNA requires its prior reductive metabolism, probably by intestinal microorganisms, and that the higher binding of 2,6-DNT in the Fischer-344 rat than in the A/J mouse may, in part, be responsible for the high susceptibility of the Fischer-344 rat to 2,6-DNT carcinogenesis.

Barut BA, Klaunig JE. Isolation and characterization of metastatic sublines  from a murine transitional cell bladder carcinoma. Clin Exp Metastasis. 1986 Jan-Mar;4(1):1-11. PMID: 3698364.

Abstract. Four sublines of a murine N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]-foramide (FANFT)-induced transitional cell carcinoma (MBT-2) possessing spontaneous metastatic ability were isolated via in vivo/in vitro serial selection of metastatic lung lesions. Subcutaneous inoculation of the parent cell line (MBT-2) produced primary tumors when injected into C3H mice. These primary tumors rarely metastasize. A subline designated L3F1 was established from 1 MBT-2 pulmonary metastatic tumor. Further in vivo/in vitro selections established three additional sublines designated L3F2, L3F3 and L3F4. Serial selection resulted in MBT-2 sublines of greater metastatic potential in terms of both incidence of metastasis and the number of metastatic tumors per lung. The parent line differed from the four sublines in metastatic potential, in vitro cell morphology, and in vitro growth parameters. The L3F2 subline was examined for the time of onset of metastasis by removal of the primary tumor. Metastasis of the subcutaneously transplanted tumor occurred between 14 and 21 days after injection of the L3F2 subline. The L3F2 primary tumors and lung metastases were morphologically characterized by light and electron microscopy.

1985

Chang LW, Pereira MA, Klaunig JE. Cytotoxicity of halogenated alkanes in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes from normal, partial hepatectomized, and preneoplastic/neoplastic liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1985 Sep 15;80(2):274-83. PMID: 2862719.

Abstract. Six halogenated hydrocarbons, chloroform, 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCE), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCE), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCE), were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes isolated from normal, partially hepatectomized, and preneoplastic/neoplastic rat livers. Preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions of phenotypically altered foci and hepatocyte nodules were induced by either (1) initiation by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by 2 weeks of 0.02% 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) in the diet and a single gavage dose of carbon tetrachloride 1 week after the start of the 2-AAF diet or (2) initiation by DENA followed by promotion with 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital in the drinking water for 24 weeks. The hepatocytes containing preneoplastic/neoplastic cells isolated from animals treated with either protocol, compared to hepatocytes isolated from normal liver, were resistant to the cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). None of the six halogenated alkanes exhibited any difference in their cytotoxicity toward hepatocytes isolated from normal liver or from liver containing preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions induced by either procedure. Hepatocytes isolated from partially hepatectomized animals were resistant to the cytotoxicity of AFB1 and chloroform but not to the cytotoxicity of 1,2-DBE or 1,2-DCE. The ranking of relative cytotoxicity in hepatocytes from untreated rats was 1,2-DBE much greater than 1,2-DCE greater than 1,1,2-TCE greater than 1,1,1-TCE greater than chloroform greater than 1,1-DCE. Treatment with SKF-525A protected the hepatocytes from the cytotoxicity of AFB1 while increasing the cytotoxicity of all six halogenated alkanes. Treatment with diethyl maleate increased the cytotoxicity of AFB1 and all six halogenated alkanes. These observations suggest that preneoplastic/neoplastic rat hepatocytes are not resistant to the cytotoxicity of the six halogenated alkanes because their toxicity might be mediated by a cytochrome P-450 species which is not inhibited by SKF-525A and is not decreased in preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions.

Selman SH, Goldblatt PJ, Klaunig JE, Keck RW, Kreimer-Birnbaum M. Localization of hematoporphyrin derivative in injured bladder mucosa. An experimental study. J Urol. 1985 Jun;133(6):1104-7. PMID: 3158750.

Abstract. Hematoporphyrin derivative, a fluorescent mixture of porphyrins, has the putative property of being retained in neoplastic tissue after systemic administration. This preferential retention is the basis for the use of this agent as a tumor localizer and tumor photosensitizer. The retention of hematoporphyrin derivative in non-neoplastic but regenerating urothelium has not been reported. In this study, thermal urothelial injury was induced in Fischer 344 rats. Animals were then injected intravenously with hematoporphyrin derivative at 3 days, 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks after injury. Photography under ultraviolet illumination was used to detect porphyrin fluorescence in the bladder mucosa. Up to 3 weeks after injury porphyrin fluorescence was detectable in areas of inflammation and hyperplasia around the area of injury. This study suggests that in this experimental model HpD fluorescence is not specific for neoplasia.

Klaunig JE, Selman SH, Shulok JR, Schafer PJ, Britton SL, Goldblatt PJ. Morphologic studies of bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative photochemotherapy. Am J Pathol. 1985 May;119(2):236-43. PMID: 3158208.

Abstract. The morphologic changes that occurred in transplanted rat bladder tumors after treatment with hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and/or phototherapy were investigated. Transitional cell bladder tumors were initiated subcutaneously in male F344 rats by injection of AY27 cells. When tumors reached 1 cm in diameter, the rats received either HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) photochemotherapy, HPD only, phototherapy only, or no treatment. Tumors were sampled immediately (0 time), 1/2, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after phototreatment for light and electron microscopy. Tumors receiving HPD-photochemotherapy displayed progressive injury to both tumor cells and endothelial cells. Early changes (0-2 hours) included focal tumor and endothelial cell vacuolation and swelling as well as sloughing of tumor cells into papillary spaces. Tumor cells and endothelial cells displayed vacuolization and damage to cell mitochondria immediately after phototreatment. Intercellular spaces also increased in size. Lethally injured cells were apparent in papillary spaces. At 4 hours after phototherapy, tumor cells and endothelial cells exhibited extensive cell damage, including mitochondrial destruction, endoplasmic reticulum swelling, polyribosome disaggregation, and plasma membrane blebbing. By 24 hours after phototherapy, the majority of cells within the tumor were necrotic. Untreated tumors and those treated with phototherapy-only did not exhibit these changes. Tumors that received HPD only exhibited focal areas of cell swelling and focal mitochondrial vacuolization in both tumor and endothelial cells. These changes, unlike the HPD-light-treated group did not progress and were reversible

Klaunig JE, Ruch RJ, Goldblatt PJ. Trout hepatocyte culture: isolation and primary culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol. 1985 Apr;21(4):221-8. PMID: 4008436.

Abstract. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) hepatocytes were isolated using a two-step perfusion through the portal vein. A typical perfusion yielded 2.92 X 10(6) liver cells with a mean viability of 96.3%. Hepatocytes comprised 93.4% of the total cell isolate. Survival of hepatocytes in suspension culture was dependent on fetal bovine serum concentration and temperature of incubation. Serum concentrations of 5, 10, and 20% produced the highest survival during primary culture. Hepatocyte survival was in inverse proportion to the incubation temperature. Trout hepatocyte DNA synthesis and mitosis decreased during the culture period. Cytochrome p450 activity decreased rapidly during the first 2 d of culture and then remained low but measurable during the remaining 8 d of culture. Culture temperature also influenced the p450 activity with lower temperatures producing greater activity. Morphologic changes occurred in the cells during culture. Isolated hepatocytes self-aggregated, forming strands and clumps that increased in size with time in culture. Junctional complexes between cells were evident within the aggregates. Nuclear atypia, increases in size and number of autophagic vacuoles, and the appearance of bundles of intermediate filaments also were observed with increased time in culture.

Ruch RJ, Klaunig JE, Pereira MA. Selective resistance to cytotoxic agents in hepatocytes isolated from partially hepatectomized and neoplastic mouse liver. Cancer Lett. 1985 Apr;26(3):295-301. PMID: 2581690.

Abstract. Hepatocytes were isolated from B6C3F1 male mouse neoplastic livers (containing hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) or two-thirds partially hepatectomized livers and tested in primary culture for their cytotoxic response to hepatotoxins. Partially hepatectomized mouse hepatocytes were less sensitive to lindane, methotrexate, diethylnitrosamine and adriamycin, and more sensitive to cycloheximide compared to normal mouse hepatocytes. Neoplastic hepatocytes were less sensitive to lindane and methotrexate, did not differ in cytotoxic response to diethylnitrosamine and adriamycin and were more sensitive to cycloheximide compared to normal mouse hepatocytes.

Goldblatt, P.J., Gunning, W.T., Klaunig, J.E. (1985). Light and Electron Microscopy of Peripheral Blood. Micron and Microscopic Acta, 16(3), 195-198.

1984

Klaunig JE, Barut BA, Goldblatt PJ. Preliminary studies on the usefulness of medaka, Oryzias latipes, embryos in carcinogenicity testing. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1984 May;65:155-61. PMID: 6749249.

Abstract. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed continuously for 10 days to diethylnitrosamine (DENA) at concentrations of 25, 50, or 100 ppm. Following exposure and after hatching, the embryos were placed in clean, carcinogen-free water. Fish were sampled for pathological examination after 1 month, 3, and 6 months. Grossly visible liver tumors were evident after 3 months in 10 and 30% of the fish treated with 50 and 100 ppm DENA, respectively. Following 6 months exposure, 4% of the fish treated with 25 ppm, 15% of those given 50 ppm, and 43% of those treated with 100 ppm DENA contained liver tumors. Focal areas consisting of 10 to 40 highly basophilic cells in the liver were noted at all the exposure concentrations. The incidence of the focal areas increased proportionately with the concentration of DENA and the age of the fish. Liver tumors were examined by light and electron microscopy. Most of the hepatic tumors were moderate to well-differentiated trabecular hepatomas, although 2 cholangiomas and 2 poorly differentiated hepatomas were noted. No liver lesions or tumors were observed in controls.

Klaunig JE. Establishment of fish hepatocyte cultures for use in in vitro carcinogenicity studies. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1984 May;65:163-73. PMID: 6431289.

Abstract. Methods were developed for the isolation and primary culture of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) liver cells. Using a two-step perfusion technique, I isolated an average of 2.75 and 2.87 liver cells/g body weight from the trout and catfish, respectively. Hepatocytes represented 91.4% (trout) and 90.1% (catfish) of the total liver cells isolated. Both catfish and trout hepatocytes in primary culture displayed a linear decrease in survival with increased duration of culture. The DNA synthesis in the hepatocytes during culture showed a similar decrease with increased time in culture. Approximately 2.8% (trout) and 3.5% (catfish) of the hepatocytes exhibited nuclear labeling with [3H]dThd immediately after isolation. The labeling index decreased for hepatocytes from both species to 0% by the tenth day of culture. Activities of cytochrome P-450 and B-5 initially declined rapidly for both trout and catfish hepatocytes after placement in culture; however, these activities leveled off at low but measurable values for the first 8 days of culture. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was induced in catfish and trout hepatocytes after exposure to dimethylnitrosamine, aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene, and N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Trout hepatocytes displayed a decrease in UDS induction with aflatoxin B1 with increased age of the cultures. However, UDS induced by N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine remained constant throughout the culture period.

Selman SH, Kreimer-Birnbaum M, Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Keck RW, Britton SL. Blood flow in transplantable bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and light. Cancer Res. 1984 May;44(5):1924-7. PMID: 6231988.

Abstract. Following hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photochemotherapy, blood flow to transplantable N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thia-zolyl] formamide-induced urothelial tumors was determined by a radioactive microsphere technique using either 103Ru or 141Ce. Two tumors were implanted s.c. on the abdominal wall of Fischer 344 weanling rats. HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered 24 hr prior to phototherapy (red light, greater than 590 nm; 360 J/sq cm). One of the two tumors was shielded from light exposure and served as an internal control. Blood flows were determined in control animals that received no treatment (Group 1), HPD only (Group 2), or light only (Group 3). In Groups 4 and 5, animals received the combination of HPD and light but differed in the time interval between treatment and blood flow determinations (10 min and 24 hr, respectively). Only blood flow to tumors treated with HPD and light showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) when compared with their internal controls both at 10 min (Group 4) and 24 hr (Group 5) after completion of phototherapy. These studies suggest that disruption of tumor blood flow may be an important mechanism of action of this method of cancer therapy

Stoner GD, Greisiger EA, Schut HA, Pereira MA, Loeb TR, Klaunig JE, Branstetter DG. A comparison of the lung adenoma response in strain A/J mice after intraperitoneal and oral administration of carcinogens. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1984 Feb;72(2):313-23. PMID: 6695378.

Abstract. This study was undertaken to compare the ability of a series of compounds from different chemical classes to induce lung tumors in strain A/J mice after either ip or po administration. 3-Methylcholanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, urethan, diethylnitrosamine, ethylnitrosourea, and dimethylhydrazine induced a significant (p less than 0.05; t test) increase in the lung tumor response when given both ip and po. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and a 2:1 mixture of 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene were inactive by both routes of administration and at all dose levels. The lung tumor response to all doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, the highest dose of diethylnitrosamine, and the middle doses of both ethylnitrosourea and dimethylhydrazine varied as a function of the route of administration. This finding was most evident for the polycyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., the average number of lung tumors per mouse in animals that received the middle dose of 3-methylcholanthrene or the highest dose of benzo(a)pyrene by the ip route exceeded that by the po route by factors of 12 and 13, respectively. Tissue distribution and elimination studies were conducted in an effort to determine the basis for the observed difference in lung tumor response to 3-methylcholanthrene after ip or po administration. The data indicated that 3-methylcholanthrene persists for longer periods in the animals when given ip, thus potentially providing an extended carcinogenic stimulus. Extrapulmonary lesions observed at a higher than normal frequency at necropsy included peritoneal sarcomas (in 3-methylcholanthrene-treated mice), and both squamous cell carcinomas of the forestomach and abnormal lesions of the liver (in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice).

Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Hinton DE, Lipsky MM, Trump BF. Carcinogen induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in mouse hepatocytes. Toxicol Pathol. 1984;12(2):119-25. PMID: 11478312.

Abstract. Mouse primary liver cell cultures were examined for evidence of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) following treatment with the carcinogens; dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), diethylnitrosamine (DENA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), benzo(a)pyrene (BP), dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), 1,1,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), safrole, diethylstilbestrol (DES), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and dieldrin and the noncarcinogens; dimethylformamide (DMF), fluorene, and pyrene. Mouse hepatocyte cultures were simultaneously treated with three concentrations of each compound and 3H-thymidine. After 24 hrs, cells were fixed and processed for autoradiography. 3H-thymidine incorporation in both experimental and control cell nuclei, as evidenced by autoradiographic grains, was quantitated microscopically. DMNA, DENA, 2-AAF, MNNG, BP, AFB1 and DMBA significantly increased UDS over untreated cells at all concentrations studied. DDT, DMF, fluorene, pyrene, safrole, DES, and dieldrin were negative for UDS in all concentrations examined. DMNA, 2-AAF and MNNG were also studied for UDS induction in 2 hr old, 1 day old and 4 day old cultures. A progressive decrease in UDS with increased time after plating was found in DMNA and 2-AAF treated cultures. After 4 days DMNA and 2-AAF induced UDS only at the highest concentrations examined (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M respectively). MNNG induced UDS at all time periods and concentrations sampled. An attempt to enhance the sensitivity of the UDS assay by inducing the mixed function oxidative enzyme activity in the hepatocytes with phenobarbital administered in vivo resulted in no statistically significant increase in UDS with DMNA, 2-AAF, MNNG, DDT, and dieldrin when compared with cells from non-induced animals

Kreimer-Birnbaum M, Baumann JL, Klaunig JE, Keck R, Goldblatt PJ, Selman SH. Chemical studies with hematoporphyrin derivative in bladder cell lines. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1984;170:335-50. PMID: 6241683.

Abstract.

Costantini MG, Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ. Kinetics of DNA repair synthesis induced by bleomycin and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in isolated rat liver nuclei. J Exp Pathol. 1984;1(2):89-101. PMID: 6086016.

Abstract. Purified rat liver nuclei were incubated in the presence of a labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate and bleomycin (an antitumor agent) or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU, a direct-acting carcinogen) to compare their abilities to induce DNA repair synthesis. It was found that bleomycin induced the incorporation of [3H]dTMP and, to a lesser extent, [3H]dCMP and [3H]dAMP, whereas MNU induced incorporation of [3H]dAMP exclusively. The bleomycin-induced DNA repair was linear with time, whereas the MNU-induced repair was more complex, requiring an induction period and lasting only 90 minutes. The extent of incorporation measured after a 15- or 30-minute preexposure to bleomycin was proportional to the time of preexposure and the repair reaction was completed within 30 minutes. The extent of incorporation measured after preexposure to MNU increased less than proportionally with the time of preexposure and the repair reaction lasted a total of approximately 90 minutes. The interactions between bleomycin and MNU damage and repair were also examined. It was found that, following preexposure to MNU and subsequent repair in the presence of bleomycin, the repair activities induced by the two compounds were not additive. Our data are in agreement with previous studies on the base excision induced by bleomycin and MNU and suggest that the in vitro nuclear system reflects the physiological changes induced by the interaction of a compound with DNA.

Jones, R.T., Klaunig, J.E., Sanefuji, H., Hinton, D.E. (1984). A Method for the Organ Explant Culture of Fish Kidney Tubules. Journal of Tissue Culture Methods, 7(4), 185-190.

Kreimer-Birnbaum, M., Klaunig, J.E., Keck, R., Goldblatt, P.J., Britton, S.L., Selman, S.H. (1984). Studies With Hematoporphyrin Derivative in Transplantable Urothelial Tumors. In A. Andreoni and R. Cubeddu (Eds.), Porphyrins in Tumor Phototherapy (pp. 235-241).

Kreimer-Birnbaum, M., Baumann, J.L., Klaunig, J.E., Keck, R., Goldblatt, P.J., Selman, S.H. (1984). Chemical Studies with Hematoporphyrin Derivative in Bladder Cell Lines. In D.R. Doiron and C.J. Gomer (Eds.), Porphyrin Localization and Treatment of Tumors (pp. 335-350). New York: Alan R. Liss.

1983

Selman SH, Goldblatt PJ, Christoforidis AJ, Klaunig JE, Collard RK, Jhunjhunwala JS, Kropp KA. Osteoblastic lesions in a patient with a bladder filling defect. J Urol. 1983 Sep;130(3):522-5. PMID: 6887367.

Abstract.

Castonguay A, Lin D, Stoner GD, Radok P, Furuya K, Hecht SS, Schut HA, Klaunig JE. Comparative carcinogenicity in A/J mice and metabolism by cultured mouse peripheral lung of N’-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and their analogues. Cancer Res.  1983 Mar;43(3):1223-9. PMID: 6825093.

Abstract.

Selman, S.H., Keck, R.W., Klaunig, J.E., Kreimer-Birnbaum, M., Goldblatt, P.J., Britton, S.L. (1983). Acute Blood Flow Changes in Transplantable FANFT-Induced Urothelial Tumors Treated with Hematoporphyrin Derivative and Light. Surgical Forum, 34, 676-678.

Stoner, G.D., Klaunig, J.E. (1983). Selective Isolation of Epithelial Cells in Primary Explant Cultures of Human and Animal Tissues. In T.G. Pretlow and T.P. Pretlow (Eds.), Cell Separation: Methods and Selected Applications (Vol. 2).

Klaunig, J.E. (1983). Primary Culture of Mouse Hepatocytes: Effects of Insulin and Dexamethasone. In R.A. Harris and N.W. Corwell (Eds.), Isolation, Characterization, and Use of Hepatocytes (pp.93-97). New York: Elsevier Science.

1982

Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Hinton DE, Lipsky MM, Knipe SM, Trump BF. Morphologic and functional studies of mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. Anat  Rec. 1982 Nov;204(3):231-43. PMID: 6130724.

Abstract. Mouse liver cells in primary culture were evaluated by high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cells after 2 hours of culture in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum were spherical in shape, and were either individual or in small clusters of up to ten cells. Following 1 day in culture, hepatocytes were flattened and usually found in groups. Bile canaliculus-like structures were apparent between hepatocytes. Tight junctions and desmosomes were also present along adjacent plasma membranes. Autophagic vacuoles were seen within the cytoplasm. After 2 days in culture, hepatocytes appeared more elongated and flattened than in earlier sampling periods. Both autophagic and clear vacuoles were seen in the cytoplasm. Mitochondria were present in a variety of shapes and sizes. Small bundles of microfilaments were frequently seen in the basal region of cross-sectioned cells. From the fourth until the eighth day in culture, hepatocytes displayed further progression of the morphologic changes seen after 2 days. Nuclear elongation and the projection of cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions into the nucleus were also evident after 4 days. Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were eventually observed in all hepatocytes by the eighth day of culture. DNA synthesis in the cells during culture was investigated by autoradiography. The percentage of S-phase labeled cells was 0.1% after 1 day of culture. The labeling index increased to 1.02%, 3.14%, and 5.88% after 2, 4, and 6 days of culture, respectively. Synthesis of albumin by the liver cells was also detectable during the first 8 days of primary culture. A gradual drop in albumin synthesis was noted with increased time in culture. The percentage of hepatocytes that histochemically stained for gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) progressively increased from 0.01% of the cells after 2 hours culture to 3.14% of the cells after 8 days of culture.

Stoner GD, Babcock MS, Cothern GA, Klaunig JE, Gunning WT 3rd, Knipe SM. In vitro transformation of rat esophageal epithelial cells with N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine. Carcinogenesis. 1982;3(6):629-34. PMID: 7116556.

Abstract. Using an explant/cell culture system, rat esophageal epithelial cells were transformed in vitro by exposure to N-nitroso-N-benzyl-N-methylamine (BMNA). Twelve esophageal explant cultures per group were exposed twice (at days 1 and 7) to 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 micrograms BMNA/ml of medium. After incubation for 60-90 days, epithelial cells in primary cultures treated with all three concentrations of BMNA could be subcultured and cell lines were developed. The number of primary cultures and the number of subsequently developed epithelial cell lines was carcinogen-dose-dependent. Cell lines could only be established from carcinogen treated explants. Electron microscopy revealed that the BMNA-treated cell lines contained morphological markers of esophageal epithelial cells; i.e., numerous tonofilaments and junctional complexes, even after prolonged subculture. By immunofluorescence, the cells reacted positively with antibodies prepared to mouse skin prekeratins (K1 and K2). Two cell lines (from the 5 micrograms BMNA/ml group) were able to grow in soft agar and produce palpable tumors upon injection into syngeneic recipients. These tumors possessed the histological features of squamous cell carcinomas.

Hinton, D.E., Lipsky, M.M., Klaunig, J.E., Kolaja, G.J. (1982). Hepatic Morphology of the Lesser Bushbaby (Galago): A Light and Electron Microscopic Study. In D.E. Haines (Ed.), The Lesser Bushbaby (Galago) As An Animal Model: Selected Topics (pp. 231-246). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

1981

Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Hinton DE, Lipsky MM, Trump BF. Mouse liver cell culture. II. Primary culture. In Vitro. 1981 Oct;17(10):926-34. PMID: 7309042.

Abstract. Mouse hepatocytes in primary culture were characterized. Hepatocytes were isolated by the two-step hepatic portal vein perfusion method described previously. An optimal cell attachment of 43% was noted after 2 h incubation in 10% fetal bovine serum. Minimal attachment (less than 7%) occurred in serumless medium. Serum concentrations above 10% and attachment durations greater that 2 h resulted in no increased attachment of viable cells. Nonviable cells, however, progressively attached when both of these parameters were increased. Survival data of the cells in culture resembled those reported for rat hepatocytes in primary culture. A progressive decrease in survival was noted following initial attachment until only approximately 15% of initially plated cells remained viable and attached after 8 d culture. The decrease in survival was accompanied by morphologic changes including flattening and elongation of the cells, some multinucleation, and disruption of monolayer groups.

Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Hinton DE, Lipsky MM, Chacko J, Trump BF. Mouse liver cell culture. I. Hepatocyte isolation. In Vitro. 1981 Oct;17(10):913-25. PMID: 6273298.

Abstract. A method for isolation of mouse liver cells by a two-step perfusion with calcium and magnesium-free Hanks’ salt solution followed by a medium containing collagenase is described. Several variations of the commonly used procedure for rat liver cell isolation were quantitatively compared with respect to cell yield and viability. The optimal isolation technique involved perfusion through the hepatic portal vein and routinely produced an average of 2.3 x 10(6) viable liver cells/g body weight. Optimal perfusate collagenase concentration was found to be 100 U of enzyme activity per milliliter of perfusate. Light and electron microscopic evaluation of liver morphology after several steps of the isolation showed distinct morphologic changes in hepatocytes and other liver cells during perfusion. After perfusion with Hanks’ calcium- and magnesium-free solution, many hepatocytes exhibited early reversible cell injury. These changes included vesiculation and slight swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondrial matrix condensation. Subsequent to perfusion with collagenase, the majority of hepatocytes appeared connected to one another only by tight junctional complexes at the bile canaliculi. Multiple evaginations were seen on the outer membrane resembling microville and probably represented the remains of cell-to-cell interdigitations between hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells from the space of Disse. The cytoplasmic injury seen after Hanks’ perfusion was reversed after collagenase perfusion. After mechanical dispersion, isolated mouse hepatocytes were spherical in shape and existed as individual cells; many (80 to 85%) were binucleated under hase contrast light microscopy. By electron microscopy, cells appeared morphologically similar in cytoplasmic constitution to that seen in intact nonaltered liver cells.

Lipsky MM, Hinton DE, Klaunig JE, Trump BF. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. III. Electron microscopy of safrole-induced hepatocellular adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Aug;67(2):393-405. PMID: 6943377.

Abstract. A systematic, ultrastructural analysis wsa performed on safrole-induced hepatocellular adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma(s) (HPC) in BALB/c mice. Adenomas were heterogeneous in cell composition containing dark-staining basophilic cells, pale-staining acidophilic cells, clear cells, and lipid-laden cells. Darkly staining cells resembled fetal hepatocytes. They had large nuclei with irregular borders and limited diversity of organelles. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was prominent and seen as parallel cisternae in single or double tracts often in association with mitochondria. Pale-staining cells contained abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Other organelles were often displaced to the perinuclear or peripheral region of the cell. The clear cells resembled dark-staining or pale-staining cells but also containing large areas of glycogen deposition. Lipid-laden cells contained numerous, multisized lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. HPC contained cell types similar to those of the adenoma. In addition, they contained many anaplastic cells. These resembled hepatocytes but contained several other alterations. The most striking was an apparent increase in the number of altered mitochondria. The cytoplasm was often fluid with enlarged mitochondria with dense or pale matrices. The cristae were few and had altered configurations. Also, an apparent increase was seen in the number of microbodies. These were often clustered in one region of the cytoplasm. An increase in microbodies was also noted in other cell types of hepatocellular carcinomas. The results of this study demonstrated similarities in the cell types of the adenomas and HPC. This study also demonstrated differences, with the anaplastic cell being common only to the carcinoma. Due to the similarity of cell types, the adenoma should be considered a possible site of HPC development.

Lipsky MM, Hinton DE, Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Trump BF. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. II. Sequential enzyme histochemical analysis of BALB/c mouse liver during safrole-induced carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Aug;67(2):377-92. PubMed PMID: 6943376.

Abstract. Sequential alterations in enzyme histochemical profiles and reaction of hepatocytes to rapid iron overload were examined in male BALB/c mice during chronic, safrole exposure. At 24 weeks after initiation of safrole treatment, foci of enzyme-altered hepatocytes were noted. These foci were composed of cells showing a decrease in reactivity for glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and an increase for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-Glu-T). In control, iron-loaded mice, the livers were intensely siderotic. In safrole-exposed, iron-loaded mice, foci of iron-negative hepatocytes, varying from a few cells to a lobule in diameter, were initially noted at 24 weeks. Both enzyme-altered and iron-negative foci occurred in the livers of exposed mice at all time periods after 24 weeks. After 36, 52, and 75 weeks of safrole treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were noted with altered enzyme histochemical profiles. Hepatocytes from adenomas were characterized by a decreased staining for Glc-6-pase and SDH and increased staining for gamma-Glu-T and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Glc-6-PD). In addition, a few nodules showed a decrease in staining for 5’nucleotidase. In iron-loaded mice, hepatocytes of adenomas showed a decreased to negative reaction for iron when the surrounding parenchyma was siderotic. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HPC) occurred in livers of mice exposed to safrole for 52-75 weeks. The cells of HPC displayed similar enzyme histochemical reactions as cells of adenomas. They were decreased for Glc-6-Pase and SDH activity and increased for gamma-Glu-T and Glc-6-PD. In iron-loaded mice, the HPC cells were negative for stainable iron. Foci, adenomas, and HPC displayed some variability in enzyme histochemical reactions. Variability existed between lesions as well as between cells of the same lesion.

Lipsky MM, Hinton DE, Klaunig JE, Trump BF. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. I. Histogenesis of safrole-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Aug;67(2):365-76. PMID: 6943375.

Abstract. A sequential, histologic analysis of the livers of male BALB/c mice chronically fed the hepatocarcinogen safrole (4,000 ppm) was performed at 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 52, and 75 weeks. The transplantability of selected lesions to syngeneic hosts was also assessed. Histopathologic liver alterations at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks induced hypertrophy of centrolobular hepatocytes, oval cell proliferation, fatty change in periportal hepatocytes, including basophilic, acidophilic, and clear cell, were noted. At 36 and 52 weeks, hepatocellular adenomas occurred in 4 of 10 and 7 of 10 mice, respectively. At 75 weeks they occurred in 5 of 5 mice. Adenomas were larger than a lobule in diameter compressed the adjacent parenchyma, and distorted the hepatic architecture. Individual adenomas were composed of a mixture of basophilic, acidophilic, clear, and lipid-laden cells, arranged in disorganized cords, one to three cells in thickness. None of the 10 adenomas tested grew upon subcutaneous transplantation into syngeneic hosts. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HPC) developed in 2 of 10 safrole-exposed mice at 52 weeks and 3 of 5 mice at 75 weeks. These lesions were large, multilobed and, unlike adenomas, seemed to invade adjacent parenchyma. The HPC were heterogeneous in cell composition. Their architecture was disorganized with trabeculae of 1-10 or more cells in thickness. No central veins or portal tracts were seen. All HPC proliferated when transplanted into syngeneic hosts. The results of this study demonstrated a sequential development of altered hepatocyte populations leading to HPC in safrole-treated mice. The transplantability of HPC indicated their malignant nature.

Hinton, D.E., Klaunig, J.E., Jack, R.M., Lipsky, M.M., Trump, B.F. (1981). Evaluation of the Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) as a Test Species in Chemical Carcinogenesis Studies. In Vitro, Journal of the American Society of Testing and Materials, 737, 226-238.

1980

Lipsky MM, Hinton DE, Klaunig JE, Goldblatt PJ, Trump BF. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase in safrole-induced, presumptive premalignant mouse hepatocytes. Carcinogenesis. 1980 Feb;1(2):151-6. PMID: 22282994.

Abstract. A histochemical procedure was used to determine the presence of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in the livers of control, regenerating and carcinogen-treated mice. Young Balb/c mice were fed safrole, a naturally occurring hepatocarcinogen (0.4% w/w), for one year. Ten mice from control and ten mice from the safrole-treated group were killed at 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, and 52 weeks of exposure and 9 adult mice were killed after 2/3 hepatectomy. Basophilic and acidophilic foci of altered hepatocytes occurred in safrole-treated mice after 24 weeks. Neoplastic nodules appeared after 36 weeks. Both foci and nodules displayed elevated GGT activity as determined by enzyme histochemistry. Variability in the pattern of enzyme distribution and staining intensity was seen between cells of the same focus or nodule, as well as between different foci and nodules. Hepatocytes from regenerating livers of partially hepatectomized mice were negative for GGT. These results demonstrated a sequential development of carcinogen-altered hepatocyte populations characterized by the appearance of GGT activity prior to carcinoma formation. The results in the mouse show marked similarity to those reported in rat liver, where GGT has been used as a positive marker for premalignant liver lesions induced by a variety of carcinogens.

1979

Lipsky MM, Hinton DE, Goldblatt PJ, Klaunig JE, Trump BF. Iron negative foci and nodules in safrole-exposed mouse liver made siderotic by iron-dextran injection. Pathol Res Pract. 1979 May;164(2):178-85. PMID: 461227.

Abstract. A procedure for the production of mouse hepatic siderosis is described which results in extensive iron deposition in all lobular zones. Mice exposed to safrole for 24 weeks displayed basophilic and acidophilic foci which did not accumulate iron. 36 weeks of dietary safrole exposure resulted in nodular lesions comprised of basophilic and hyalinized cells. The nodules displayed decreased or negative reactions for iron in hepatic parenchymal cells when the surrounding liver was siderotic.

Klaunig JE, Lipsky MM, Trump BF, Hinton DE. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in teleost liver following subacute exposure to PCB. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Mar-Apr;2(4):953-63. PMID: 109562.  

Abstract. The response of the channel catfish liver to subacute exposure of polychlorinated biphenyls was evaluated using electron microscopic and biochemical techniques. After 21 days, treated fish displayed elevated microsomal enzyme activities. Morphologically, the liver produced several patterns of alteration involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Structural alterations included an increase in tubular smooth ER, production of parallel stacks of smooth ER showing continuity with rough ER, and membranous whorls. Biochemical and morphologic findings were correlated in exposed livers, and the relationship of these findings to similar studies in other species of fish is discussed.

1978

Hinton, D.E., Klaunig, J.E., Lipsky, M.M. (1978). PCB-Induced Alterations in Teleost Liver: A Model for Environmental Disease in Fish. Marine Fisheries Review, 49, 47-50.

Lipsky MM, Klaunig JE. Comparison of acute response to polychlorinated biphenyl in liver of rat and channel catfish: a biochemical and morphological study. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1978 Jan;4(1):107-21. PMID: 416227.

Abstract. The acute response of liver of channel catfish and rat to polychlorinated biphenyl was compared on a structural and functional basis. Both the rat and the fish had elevated microsomal enzyme activities. However, in the rat the response was quantitatively greater in all respects. Morphologically, rats responded with lipid accumulation and marked increases in smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Fish liver showed lipid accumulation and increased profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum with alterations in arrangement that appeared as vesicles and parallel cisternae. Minimal changes were seen in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which appeared to be increased as discrete foci.

1976

Doyle, M., Koepp, S., Klaunig, J.E. (1976). Acute Toxicological Response of the Crayfish (Orconectes limosus) to Mercury. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 16, 422-424.

1975

Klaunig J, Koepp S, McCormick M. Acute toxicity of a native mummichog population (Fundulus heteroclitus) to mercury. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1975 Nov;14(5):534-6. PMID: 1203564

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